Du benytter en nettleser vi ikke støtter. Se informasjon om nettlesere

. Referanser

Abouassaly, R., Alibhai, S. M., Shah, N., Timilshina, N., Fleshner, N., & Finelli, A. (2010). Troubling outcomes from population-level analysis of surgery for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Urology, 76(4), 895-901. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2010.04.020

Advanced Bladder Cancer (ABC) Meta-analysis Collaboration. (2005). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in invasive bladder cancer: update of a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data advanced bladder cancer (ABC) meta-analysis collaboration. Eur. Urol, 48(2), 202-205.

Alanee, S., Alvarado-Cabrero, I., Murugan, P., Kumar, R., Nepple, K. G., Paner, G. P., . . . Konety, B. R. (2019). Update of the International Consultation on Urological Diseases on bladder cancer 2018: non-urothelial cancers of the urinary bladder. World journal of urology, 37(1), 107-114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-018-2421-5

Aleksic, I., Rais-Bahrami, S., Daugherty, M., Agarwal, P. K., Vourganti, S., & Bratslavsky, G. (2018). Primary urethral carcinoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data analysis identifying predictors of cancer-specific survival. Urol Ann, 10(2), 170-174. https://doi.org/10.4103/ua.Ua_136_17

Amin, M., Edge, S., Greene, F., Byrd, D. R., Brookland, R. K., Washington, M. K., & Gershenwald, J. E. (red.). (2017). AJCC cancer staging manual (8. utg.). Chicago: American Joint Committee on Cancer, Springer

Andersson, G., Wennersten, C., Gaber, A., Boman, K., Nodin, B., Uhlen, M., . . . Jirstrom, K. (2014). Reduced expression of ezrin in urothelial bladder cancer signifies more advanced tumours and an impaired survival: validatory study of two independent patient cohorts. BMC urology, 14, 36. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2490-14-36

Andreassen, B. K., Aagnes, B., Gislefoss, R., Andreassen, M., & Wahlqvist, R. (2016). Incidence and Survival of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Norway 1981-2014. BMC cancer, 16(1), 799. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-016-2832-x

Arrizabalaga, M., Extramiana, J., Parra, J. L., Ramos, C., Diaz Gonzalez, R., & Leiva, O. (1987). Treatment of massive haematuria with aluminous salts. British journal of urology, 60(3), 223-226.

Aziz, N. M. (2007). Cancer survivorship research: state of knowledge, challenges and opportunities. Acta Oncol., 46(4), 417-432.

Babjuk, M., Burger, M., Compérat, E., Gontero, P., Mostafid, A. H., Palou, J., . . . Zigeuner, R. (2019). Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer (rev. utg.). Arnhem: European Association of Urology. Hentet fra https://uroweb.org/guideline/non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer/

Babjuk, M., Burger, M., Zigeuner, R., Shariat, S., Van Rhijn, B. W., Compérat, E., . . . Roupret, M. (2011). EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: update 2013. Eur. Urol, 64(4), 639-653.

Babjuk, M., Böhle, A., Burger, M., Compérat, E., Kaasinen, E., Palou, J., . . . Zigeuner, R. (2011). Guidelines on non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (TaT1 and CIS) (rev. utg.). Arnhem: European Association of Urology. Hentet fra https://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/EAU-Guidelines-Non-muscle-invasive-Bladder-Cancer-2015-v1.pdf

Baboudjian, M., Al-Balushi, K., Michel, F., Lannes, F., Akiki, A., Gaillet, S., . . . Boissier, R. (2020). Diagnostic ureteroscopy prior to nephroureterectomy for urothelial carcinoma is associated with a high risk of bladder recurrence despite technical precautions to avoid tumor spillage. World journal of urology, 38(1), 159-165. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-019-02768-w

Barrow, P. J., Ingham, S., O'Hara, C., Green, K., McIntyre, I., Lalloo, F., . . . Evans, D. G. (2013). The spectrum of urological malignancy in Lynch syndrome. Familial cancer, 12(1), 57-63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10689-012-9573-z

Bartkowiak, D., Humble, N., Suhr, P., Hagg, J., Mair, K., Polivka, B., . . . Wiegel, T. (2012). Second cancer after radiotherapy, 1981-2007. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, 105(1), 122-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2011.09.013

Bellmunt, J., de Wit, R., Vaughn, D. J., Fradet, Y., Lee, J. L., Fong, L., . . . Bajorin, D. F. (2017). Pembrolizumab as Second-Line Therapy for Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma. The New England journal of medicine, 376(11), 1015-1026. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1613683

Bellmunt, J., Fougeray, R., Rosenberg, J. E., von der Maase, H., Schutz, F. A., Salhi, Y., . . . Choueiri, T. K. (2013). Long-term survival results of a randomized phase III trial of vinflunine plus best supportive care versus best supportive care alone in advanced urothelial carcinoma patients after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO, 24(6), 1466-1472. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdt007

Bellmunt, J., Theodore, C., Demkov, T., Komyakov, B., Sengelov, L., Daugaard, G., . . . von der Maase, H. (2009). Phase III trial of vinflunine plus best supportive care compared with best supportive care alone after a platinum-containing regimen in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract. J. Clin. Oncol, 27(27), 4454-4461.

Berg, S., D'Andrea, D., Vetterlein, M. W., Cole, A. P., Fletcher, S. A., Krimphove, M. J., . . . Mossanen, M. (2019). Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with adverse features and variant histology at radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive carcinoma of the bladder: Does histologic subtype matter? Cancer, 125(9), 1449-1458. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31952

Bernstein, I. T., & Myrhøj, T. (2013). Surveillance for urinary tract cancer in Lynch syndrome. Familial cancer, 12(2), 279-284. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10689-013-9634-y

Bhattacharya, A., Li, Y., Shi, Y., & Zhang, Y. (2013). Enhanced inhibition of urinary bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion by allyl isothiocyanate and celecoxib in combination. Carcinogenesis, 34(11), 2593-2599. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgt280

Birtle, A., Johnson, M., Chester, J., Jones, R., Dolling, D., Bryan, R. T., . . . Hall, E. (2020). Adjuvant chemotherapy in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (the POUT trial): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 395(10232), 1268-1277. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30415-3

Bochner, B. H., Dalbagni, G., Sjoberg, D. D., Silberstein, J., Keren Paz, G. E., Donat, S. M., . . . Laudone, V. P. (2015). Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Eur Urol, 67(6), 1042-1050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.11.043

Bohle, A., & Bock, P. R. (2004). Intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin versus mitomycin C in superficial bladder cancer: formal meta-analysis of comparative studies on tumor progression. Urology, 63(4), 682-686.

Bohle, A., Jocham, D., & Bock, P. R. (2003). Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin versus mitomycin C for superficial bladder cancer: a formal meta-analysis of comparative studies on recurrence and toxicity. J. Urol, 169(1), 90-95.

Borhan, A., Reeder, J. E., O'Connell, M. J., Wright, K. O., Wheeless, L. L., di Sant'Agnese, P. A., . . . Messing, E. M. (2003). Grade progression and regression in recurrent urothelial cancer. J. Urol, 169(6), 2106-2109.

Bouffioux, C., Kurth, K. H., Bono, A., Oosterlinck, W., Kruger, C. B., De Pauw, M., & Sylvester, R. (1995). Intravesical adjuvant chemotherapy for superficial transitional cell bladder carcinoma: results of 2 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer randomized trials with mitomycin C and doxorubicin comparing early versus delayed instillations and short-term versus long-term treatment. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genitourinary Group. The Journal of urology, 153(3 Pt 2), 934-941.

Brauers, A., Buettner, R., & Jakse, G. (2001). Second resection and prognosis of primary high risk superficial bladder cancer: is cystectomy often too early? The Journal of urology, 165(3), 808-810.

Brausi, M., Collette, L., Kurth, K., van der Meijden, A. P., Oosterlinck, W., Witjes, J. A., . . . Sylvester, R. J. (2002). Variability in the recurrence rate at first follow-up cystoscopy after TUR in stage Ta T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a combined analysis of seven EORTC studies. Eur. Urol, 41(5), 523-531.

Bricker, G. V., Riedl, K. M., Ralston, R. A., Tober, K. L., Oberyszyn, T. M., & Schwartz, S. J. (2014). Isothiocyanate metabolism, distribution, and interconversion in mice following consumption of thermally processed broccoli sprouts or purified sulforaphane. Molecular nutrition & food research, 58(10), 1991-2000. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201400104

Brien, J. C., Shariat, S. F., Herman, M. P., Ng, C. K., Scherr, D. S., Scoll, B., . . . Raman, J. D. (2010). Preoperative hydronephrosis, ureteroscopic biopsy grade and urinary cytology can improve prediction of advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma. The Journal of urology, 184(1), 69-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2010.03.030

Brown, T., Slack, R., & Rushton, L. (2012). Occupational cancer in Britain. Urinary tract cancers: bladder and kidney. British journal of cancer, 107(Suppl 1), S76-84. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2012.121

Bruins, H. M., Veskimae, E., Hernandez, V., Imamura, M., Neuberger, M. M., Dahm, P., . . . Witjes, J. A. (2014). The impact of the extent of lymphadenectomy on oncologic outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: a systematic review. Eur Urol, 66(6), 1065-1077. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.05.031

Burger, M., Mulders, P., & Witjes, W. (2012). Use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is low among major European centres: results of a feasibility questionnaire. Eur Urol, 61(5), 1070-1071. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2012.01.039

Busch, C., & Algaba, F. (2002). The WHO/ISUP 1998 and WHO 1999 systems for malignancy grading of bladder cancer. Scientific foundation and translation to one another and previous systems. Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology, 441(2), 105-108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00428-002-0633-x

Cambier, S., Sylvester, R. J., Collette, L., Gontero, P., Brausi, M. A., van Andel, G., . . . Oddens, J. (2016). EORTC Nomograms and Risk Groups for Predicting Recurrence, Progression, and Disease-specific and Overall Survival in Non-Muscle-invasive Stage Ta-T1 Urothelial Bladder Cancer Patients Treated with 1-3 Years of Maintenance Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. Eur Urol, 69(1), 60-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.06.045

Cancer i urinblåsa, njurbäcken, urin-ledare och urinrör: nationellt vårdprogram. (2015). (rev. utg.). Lund: Regionala cancercentrum i Samverkan. Hentet fra http://www.cancercentrum.se/globalassets/cancerdiagnoser/urinvagar/urinblase--och-urinrorscancer/vardprogram/natvp_cancer_urinvagar_25aug15.pdf

Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. (2007). (IARC Scientific Publications No. 160). Lyon: IARC.

Capitanio, U., Shariat, S. F., Isbarn, H., Weizer, A., Remzi, M., Roscigno, M., . . . Karakiewicz, P. I. (2009). Comparison of oncologic outcomes for open and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy: a multi-institutional analysis of 1249 cases. Eur Urol, 56(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2009.03.072

Catsburg, C. E., Gago-Dominguez, M., Yuan, J. M., Castelao, J. E., Cortessis, V. K., Pike, M. C., & Stern, M. C. (2014). Dietary sources of N-nitroso compounds and bladder cancer risk: findings from the Los Angeles bladder cancer study. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer, 134(1), 125-135. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28331

Chang, S. S., Hassan, J. M., Cookson, M. S., Wells, N., & Smith, J. A., Jr. (2003). Delaying radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer results in worse pathological stage. J. Urol, 170(4 Pt 1), 1085-1087.

Chen, Z., Ding, W., Xu, K., Tan, J., Sun, C., Gou, Y., . . . Ding, Q. (2012). The 1973 WHO Classification is more suitable than the 2004 WHO Classification for predicting prognosis in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. PLoS one, 7(10), e47199. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047199

Cheng, L. (2008). Renal pelvis and ureter. I: D. G. Bostwick & L. Cheng (red.), Urologic surgical pathology (2. utg., s. 174). St. Louis, Mo: Mosby Elsevier.

Chitale, S., Mbakada, R., Irving, S., & Burgess, N. (2008). Nephroureterectomy for transitional cell carcinoma - the value of pre-operative histology. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 90(1), 45-50. https://doi.org/10.1308/003588408x242268

Choe, J., Braschi-Amirfarzan, M., Tirumani, S. H., Shinagare, A. B., Kim, K. W., Ramaiya, N. H., & Krajewski, K. M. (2017). Updates for the radiologist in non-muscle-invasive, muscle-invasive, and metastatic bladder cancer. Abdominal radiology (New York), 42(11), 2710-2724. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00261-017-1195-3

Choi, W., Ochoa, A., McConkey, D. J., Aine, M., Höglund, M., Kim, W. Y., . . . Lerner, S. P. (2017). Genetic Alterations in the Molecular Subtypes of Bladder Cancer: Illustration in the Cancer Genome Atlas Dataset. Eur Urol, 72(3), 354-365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2017.03.010

Choueiri, T. K., Jacobus, S., Bellmunt, J., Qu, A., Appleman, L. J., Tretter, C., . . . Rosenberg, J. E. (2014). Neoadjuvant Dose-Dense Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin With Pegfilgrastim Support in Muscle-Invasive Urothelial Cancer: Pathologic, Radiologic, and Biomarker Correlates. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 32(18), 1889-1894. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2013.52.4785

Colin, P., Ouzzane, A., Pignot, G., Ravier, E., Crouzet, S., Ariane, M. M., . . . Roupret, M. (2012). Comparison of oncological outcomes after segmental ureterectomy or radical nephroureterectomy in urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract: results from a large French multicentre study. BJU international, 110(8), 1134-1141. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.10960.x

Colt, J., Friesen, M., Stewart, P., Donguk, P., Johnson, A., Schwenn, M., . . . Silverman, D. (2014). 0084 A Case-Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids and Bladder Cancer Risk among Men. Occupational and environmental medicine, 71(Suppl 1), A71. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2014-102362.221

Cookson, M. S., Chang, S. S., Wells, N., Parekh, D. J., & Smith, J. A., Jr. (2003). Complications of radical cystectomy for nonmuscle invasive disease: comparison with muscle invasive disease. J. Urol, 169(1), 101-104.

Crivelli, J. J., Xylinas, E., Kluth, L. A., Rieken, M., Rink, M., & Shariat, S. F. (2014). Effect of smoking on outcomes of urothelial carcinoma: a systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol, 65(4), 742-754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2013.06.010

Cumberbatch, M. G. K., Foerster, B., Catto, J. W. F., Kamat, A. M., Kassouf, W., Jubber, I., . . . Gontero, P. (2018). Repeat Transurethral Resection in Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review. Eur Urol, 73(6), 925-933. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2018.02.014

Cutress, M. L., Stewart, G. D., Wells-Cole, S., Phipps, S., Thomas, B. G., & Tolley, D. A. (2012). Long-term endoscopic management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma: 20-year single-centre experience. BJU international, 110(11), 1608-1617. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11169.x

Davidsson, T., Hedlund, H., & Månsson, W. (1996). Detubularized right colonic reservoir with intussuscepted ileal nipple valve or stapled ileal ("Lundiana") outlet. Clinical and urodynamic results in a prospective randomized study. World journal of urology, 14(2), 78-84. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00182562

de Haas, R. J., Steyvers, M. J., & Fütterer, J. J. (2014). Multiparametric MRI of the bladder: ready for clinical routine? AJR. American journal of roentgenology, 202(6), 1187-1195. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.13.12294

de Reijke, T. M., Kurth, K. H., Sylvester, R. J., Hall, R. R., Brausi, M., van de Beek, K., . . . Carpentier, P. (2005). Bacillus Calmette-Guerin versus epirubicin for primary, secondary or concurrent carcinoma in situ of the bladder: results of a European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer--Genito-Urinary Group Phase III Trial (30906). J. Urol, 173(2), 405-409.

De Santis, M., Bellmunt, J., Mead, G., Kerst, J. M., Leahy, M., Maroto, P., . . . Sylvester, R. (2012). Randomized Phase II/III Trial Assessing Gemcitabine/Carboplatin and Methotrexate/Carboplatin/Vinblastine in Patients With Advanced Urothelial Cancer Who Are Unfit for Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy: EORTC Study 30986. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30(2), 191-199. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2011.37.3571

Dimarco, D. S., Dimarco, C. S., Zincke, H., Webb, M. J., Bass, S. E., Slezak, J. M., & Lightner, D. J. (2004). Surgical treatment for local control of female urethral carcinoma. Urologic oncology, 22(5), 404-409. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1078-1439(03)00174-1

Dinney, C. P., McConkey, D. J., Millikan, R. E., Wu, X., Bar-Eli, M., Adam, L., . . . Czerniak, B. (2004). Focus on bladder cancer. Cancer cell, 6(2), 111-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2004.08.002

Donat, S. M., Shabsigh, A., Savage, C., Cronin, A. M., Bochner, B. H., Dalbagni, G., . . . Milowsky, M. I. (2009). Potential impact of postoperative early complications on the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients undergoing radical cystectomy: a high-volume tertiary cancer center experience. Eur. Urol, 55(1), 177-185.

Draga, R. O., Grimbergen, M. C., Kok, E. T., Jonges, T. N., van Swol, C. F., & Bosch, J. L. (2010). Photodynamic diagnosis (5-aminolevulinic acid) of transitional cell carcinoma after bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy and mitomycin C intravesical therapy. Eur Urol, 57(4), 655-660. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2009.09.037

Drejer, D., Béji, S., Munk Nielsen, A., Høyer, S., Wrist Lam, G., & Jensen, J. B. (2017). Clinical relevance of narrow-band imaging in flexible cystoscopy: the DaBlaCa-7 study. Scandinavian journal of urology, 51(2), 120-123. https://doi.org/10.1080/21681805.2017.1295101

Duchesne, G. M., Bolger, J. J., Griffiths, G. O., Trevor Roberts, J., Graham, J. D., Hoskin, P. J., . . . Parmar, M. K. (2000). A randomized trial of hypofractionated schedules of palliative radiotherapy in the management of bladder carcinoma: results of medical research council trial BA09. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 47(2), 379-388.

Eble, J. N., Sauter, G., Epstein, J. I., & Sesterhenn, I. (red.). (2004). World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. Lyon: IARC Press.

Efstathiou, J. A., Bae, K., Shipley, W. U., Kaufman, D. S., Hagan, M. P., Heney, N. M., & Sandler, H. M. (2009). Late Pelvic Toxicity After Bladder-Sparing Therapy in Patients With Invasive Bladder Cancer: RTOG 89-03, 95-06, 97-06, 99-06. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27(25), 4055-4061. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2008.19.5776

Efstathiou, J. A., Spiegel, D. Y., Shipley, W. U., Heney, N. M., Kaufman, D. S., Niemierko, A., . . . Zietman, A. L. (2012). Long-term outcomes of selective bladder preservation by combined-modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer: the MGH experience. Eur Urol, 61(4), 705-711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2011.11.010

El-Bolkainy, M. N., Chu, E. W., Ghoneim, M. A., & Ibrahim, A. S. (1982). Cytologic detection of bladder cancer in a rural Egyptian population infected with schistosomiasis. Acta cytologica, 26(3), 303-310.

Elmussareh, M., Young, M., Ordell Sundelin, M., Bak-Ipsen, C. B., Graumann, O., & Jensen, J. B. (2017). Outcomes of haematuria referrals: two-year data from a single large university hospital in Denmark. Scandinavian journal of urology, 51(4), 282-289. https://doi.org/10.1080/21681805.2017.1310759

Engel, C., Loeffler, M., Steinke, V., Rahner, N., Holinski-Feder, E., Dietmaier, W., . . . Vasen, H. F. (2012). Risks of less common cancers in proven mutation carriers with lynch syndrome. J Clin Oncol, 30(35), 4409-4415. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2012.43.2278

Epstein, J. I., Amin, M. B., Reuter, V. R., & Mostofi, F. K. (1998). The World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology consensus classification of urothelial (transitional cell) neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Bladder Consensus Conference Committee. Am. J. Surg. Pathol, 22(12), 1435-1448.

Ericson, K. M., Isinger, A. P., Isfoss, B. L., & Nilbert, M. C. (2005). Low frequency of defective mismatch repair in a population-based series of upper urothelial carcinoma. BMC cancer, 5, 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-5-23

Eriksson, P., Aine, M., Veerla, S., Liedberg, F., Sjödahl, G., & Höglund, M. (2015). Molecular subtypes of urothelial carcinoma are defined by specific gene regulatory systems. BMC medical genomics, 8, 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12920-015-0101-5

Fahmy, O., Asri, K., Schwentner, C., Stenzl, A., & Gakis, G. (2015). Current status of robotic assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal ileal neobladder for bladder cancer. Journal of surgical oncology, 112(4), 427-429. https://doi.org/10.1002/jso.24007

Fahmy, O., Khairul-Asri, M. G., Schubert, T., Renninger, M., Malek, R., Kubler, H., . . . Gakis, G. (2018). A systematic review and meta-analysis on the oncological long-term outcomes after trimodality therapy and radical cystectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Urologic oncology, 36(2), 43-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2017.10.002

Fairey, A. S., Kassouf, W., Estey, E., Tanguay, S., Rendon, R., Bell, D., . . . Jacobsen, N. E. (2013). Comparison of oncological outcomes for open and laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy: results from the Canadian Upper Tract Collaboration. BJU international, 112(6), 791-797. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11474.x

Farnham, S. B., & Cookson, M. S. (2004). Surgical complications of urinary diversion. World J. Urol, 22(3), 157-167.

Figueroa, A. J., Stein, J. P., Dickinson, M., Skinner, E. C., Thangathurai, D., Mikhail, M. S., . . . Skinner, D. G. (1998). Radical cystectomy for elderly patients with bladder carcinoma: an updated experience with 404 patients. Cancer, 83(1), 141-147.

Fleischmann, A., Thalmann, G. N., Markwalder, R., & Studer, U. E. (2005). Extracapsular extension of pelvic lymph node metastases from urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is an independent prognostic factor. J. Clin. Oncol, 23(10), 2358-2365.

Foroudi, F., Pham, D., Bressel, M., Wong, J., Rolfo, A., Roxby, P., & Kron, T. (2012). Bladder cancer radiotherapy margins: a comparison of daily alignment using skin, bone or soft tissue. Clinical oncology, 24(10), 673-681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2012.06.012

Fossa, S. D., Ous, S., & Berner, A. (1991). Clinical significance of the "palpable mass" in patients with muscle-infiltrating bladder cancer undergoing cystectomy after pre-operative radiotherapy. Br. J. Urol, 67(1), 54-60.

Freedman, N. D., Silverman, D. T., Hollenbeck, A. R., Schatzkin, A., & Abnet, C. C. (2011). Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women. Jama, 306(7), 737-745. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.1142

Freiha, F., Reese, J., & Torti, F. M. (1996). A randomized trial of radical cystectomy versus radical cystectomy plus cisplatin, vinblastine and methotrexate chemotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. The Journal of urology, 155(2), 495-499; discussion 499-500.

Fujii, Y., Kawakami, S., Koga, F., Nemoto, T., & Kihara, K. (2003). Long-term outcome of bladder papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential. BJU. Int, 92(6), 559-562.

Fung, C., Fossa, S. D., Milano, M. T., Oldenburg, J., & Travis, L. B. (2013). Solid tumors after chemotherapy or surgery for testicular nonseminoma: a population-based study. J Clin Oncol, 31(30), 3807-3814. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2013.50.3409

Furrer, M. A., Studer, U. E., Gross, T., Burkhard, F. C., Thalmann, G. N., & Nguyen, D. P. (2018). Nerve-sparing radical cystectomy has a beneficial impact on urinary continence after orthotopic bladder substitution, which becomes even more apparent over time. BJU international, 121(6), 935-944. https://doi.org/10.1111/bju.14123

Gakis, G., Witjes, J. A., Bruins, H. M., Cathomas, R., Compérat, E., Cowan, N. C., . . . Veskimäe, E. (2020). Primary Urethral Carcinoma (7. utg.). Arnhem: EAU Guidelines Office. Hentet fra https://uroweb.org/guideline/primary-urethral-carcinoma/

Garcia-Closas, M., Malats, N., Silverman, D., Dosemeci, M., Kogevinas, M., Hein, D. W., . . . Rothman, N. (2005). NAT2 slow acetylation, GSTM1 null genotype, and risk of bladder cancer: results from the Spanish Bladder Cancer Study and meta-analyses. Lancet, 366(9486), 649-659. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(05)67137-1

Gatta, G., van der Zwan, J. M., Casali, P. G., Siesling, S., Dei Tos, A. P., Kunkler, I., . . . Capocaccia, R. (2011). Rare cancers are not so rare: the rare cancer burden in Europe. Eur J Cancer, 47(17), 2493-2511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2011.08.008

Ghadjar, P., Burkhard, F. C., Gautschi, O., Thalmann, G. N., & Studer, U. E. (2011). Induction chemotherapy for unresectable urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. BJU. Int, 107(6), 894-897.

Ghahestani, S. M., & Shakhssalim, N. (2009). Palliative treatment of intractable hematuria in context of advanced bladder cancer: a systematic review. Urology journal, 6(3), 149-156.

Gheiler, E. L., Tefilli, M. V., Tiguert, R., de Oliveira, J. G., Pontes, J. E., & Wood, D. P., Jr. (1998). Management of primary urethral cancer. Urology, 52(3), 487-493. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0090-4295(98)00199-x

Ghoneim, M. A., & Abol-Enein, H. (2004). Lymphadenectomy with cystectomy: is it necessary and what is its extent? Eur. Urol, 46(4), 457-461.

Giercksky, K.-E., Grønbech, J. E., Hammelbo, T., Hirshberg, H., Lundar, T., Mjåland, O., . . . Håheim, L. L. (2003). Bruk av palliativ kirurgi i behandlingen av kreftpasienter (SMM-rapport Nr. 8/2003). Oslo: Sintef. Hentet fra www.kunnskapssenteret.no/publikasjoner/_attachment/172405?_ts=14855a78a2d

Glas, A. S., Roos, D., Deutekom, M., Zwinderman, A. H., Bossuyt, P. M., & Kurth, K. H. (2003). Tumor markers in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer. A systematic review. The Journal of urology, 169(6), 1975-1982. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000067461.30468.6d

Gofrit, O. N., Pode, D., Lazar, A., Katz, R., & Shapiro, A. (2006). Watchful waiting policy in recurrent Ta G1 bladder tumors. Eur. Urol, 49(2), 303-306.

Gofrit, O. N., Yutkin, V., Shapiro, A., Pizov, G., Zorn, K. C., Hidas, G., . . . Pode, D. (2016). The Response of Variant Histology Bladder Cancer to Intravesical Immunotherapy Compared to Conventional Cancer. Frontiers in oncology, 6, 43. https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2016.00043

Gogna, N. K., Matthews, J. H., Turner, S. L., Mameghan, H., Duchesne, G. M., Spry, N., . . . Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology, G. (2006). Efficacy and tolerability of concurrent weekly low dose cisplatin during radiation treatment of localised muscle invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma: a report of two sequential Phase II studies from the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, 81(1), 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2006.09.001

Gonzalez, A. N., Lipsky, M. J., Li, G., Rutman, M. P., Cooper, K. L., Weiner, D. M., . . . Anderson, C. B. (2019). The Prevalence of Bladder Cancer During Cystoscopy for Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria. Urology, 126, 34-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2019.01.011

Gregg, R. W., Vera-Badillo, F. E., Booth, C. M., Mahmud, A., Brundage, M., Leveridge, M. J., & Hanna, T. P. (2018). Perioperative chemotherapy for urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, 128, 58-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.05.005

Griffiths, T. R., Charlton, M., Neal, D. E., & Powell, P. H. (2002). Treatment of carcinoma in situ with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin without maintenance. The Journal of urology, 167(6), 2408-2412.

Grimm, M.-O., Bex, A., De Santis, M., Ljungberg, B., Catto, J. W. F., Rouprêt, M., . . . Van Poppel, H. (2019). Safe Use of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in the Multidisciplinary Management of Urological Cancer: The European Association of Urology Position in 2019. European Urology, 76(3), 368-380. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2019.05.041

Grivas, P., Monk, B. J., Petrylak, D., Reck, M., Foley, G., Guenther, S., . . . Moehler, M. (2019). Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors as Switch or Continuation Maintenance Therapy in Solid Tumors: Rationale and Current State. Target Oncol, 14(5), 505-525. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11523-019-00665-1

Grossman, H. B., Natale, R. B., Tangen, C. M., Speights, V. O., Vogelzang, N. J., Trump, D. L., . . . Crawford, E. D. (2003). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus cystectomy compared with cystectomy alone for locally advanced bladder cancer. The New England journal of medicine, 349(9), 859-866. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa022148

Grotenhuis, A. J., Vermeulen, S. H., & Kiemeney, L. A. (2010). Germline genetic markers for urinary bladder cancer risk, prognosis and treatment response. Future oncology (London, England), 6(9), 1433-1460. https://doi.org/10.2217/fon.10.109

Gudjónsson, S., Adell, L., Merdasa, F., Olsson, R., Larsson, B., Davidsson, T., . . . Liedberg, F. (2009). Should all patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer receive early intravesical chemotherapy after transurethral resection? The results of a prospective randomised multicentre study. Eur Urol, 55(4), 773-780. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2009.01.006

Guo, R. Q., Hong, P., Xiong, G. Y., Zhang, L., Fang, D., Li, X. S., . . . Zhou, L. Q. (2018). Impact of ureteroscopy before radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinomas on oncological outcomes: a meta-analysis. BJU international, 121(2), 184-193. https://doi.org/10.1111/bju.14053

Guzzo, T. J., Rogers, C. G., Deng, C. Y., Bivalacqua, T. J., Palapattu, G. S., Bastian, P. J., . . . Gonzalgo, M. L. (2008). Outcomes of patients after aborted radical cystectomy for intraoperative findings of metastatic disease. BJU international, 102(11), 1539-1543. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.07877.x

Gönul, II, Akyürek, N., Dursun, A., & Küpeli, B. (2008). Relationship of Ki67, TP53, MDM-2 and BCL-2 expressions with WHO 1973 and WHO/ISUP grades, tumor category and overall patient survival in urothelial tumors of the bladder. Pathology, research and practice, 204(10), 707-717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2008.03.011

Haber, G. P., Campbell, S. C., Colombo, J. R., Jr., Fergany, A. F., Aron, M., Kaouk, J., & Gill, I. S. (2007). Perioperative outcomes with laparoscopic radical cystectomy: "pure laparoscopic" and "open-assisted laparoscopic" approaches. Urology, 70(5), 910-915.

Hakenberg, O. W., Compérat, E., Minhas, S., Necchi, A., Protzel, C., Watkin, N., & Robinson, R. (2017). EAU Guidelines on Penile Cancer. Arnhem: European Association of Urology. Hentet fra http://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/12-Penile-Cancer_2017_web.pdf

Halpern, J. A., Chughtai, B., & Ghomrawi, H. (2017). Cost-effectiveness of Common Diagnostic Approaches for Evaluation of Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria. JAMA internal medicine, 177(6), 800-807. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.0739

Han, R. F., & Pan, J. G. (2006). Can intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin reduce recurrence in patients with superficial bladder cancer? A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Urology, 67(6), 1216-1223.

Haugnes, H. S., Bosl, G. J., Boer, H., Gietema, J. A., Brydoy, M., Oldenburg, J., . . . Fossa, S. D. (2012). Long-term and late effects of germ cell testicular cancer treatment and implications for follow-up. J Clin Oncol 30(30), 3752-3763.

Hautmann, R. E., de Petriconi, R. C., Pfeiffer, C., & Volkmer, B. G. (2012). Radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder without neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy: long-term results in 1100 patients. Eur Urol, 61(5), 1039-1047. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2012.02.028

Hautmann, R. E., de Petriconi, R. C., & Volkmer, B. G. (2010). Lessons learned from 1,000 neobladders: the 90-day complication rate. The Journal of urology, 184(3), 990-994; quiz 1235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2010.05.037

Hautmann, R. E., Volkmer, B. G., Schumacher, M. C., Gschwend, J. E., & Studer, U. E. (2006). Long-term results of standard procedures in urology: the ileal neobladder. World J. Urol, 24(3), 305-314.

Helenius, M., Dahlman, P., Magnusson, M., Lönnemark, M., & Magnusson, A. (2014). Contrast enhancement in bladder tumors examined with CT urography using traditional scan phases. Acta Radiol, 55(9), 1129-1136. https://doi.org/10.1177/0284185113513762

Heller, M. T., & Tublin, M. E. (2014). In search of a consensus: evaluation of the patient with hematuria in an era of cost containment. AJR. American journal of roentgenology, 202(6), 1179-1186. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.13.12266

Herman, J. M., Smith, D. C., Montie, J., Hayman, J. A., Sullivan, M. A., Kent, E., . . . Sandler, H. M. (2004). Prospective quality-of-life assessment in patients receiving concurrent gemcitabine and radiotherapy as a bladder preservation strategy. Urology, 64(1), 69-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2004.02.024

Hermann, G. G., Mogensen, K., Carlsson, S., Marcussen, N., & Duun, S. (2011). Fluorescence-guided transurethral resection of bladder tumours reduces bladder tumour recurrence due to less residual tumour tissue in Ta/T1 patients: a randomized two-centre study. BJU international, 108(8 Pt 2), E297-303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10090.x

Hernandez, V., Linares, E., Dunn, J., Yuan, Y., MacLennan, S., Lam, T., . . . Witjes, J. A. (2015). What are the oncological and functional outcomes of sexual-function preserving cystectomy compared with standard radical cystectomy in men with bladder cancer? [Protokoll]. PROSPERO, CRD42015020742. Tilgjengelig fra: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015020742.

Herr, H. W., Bochner, B. H., Dalbagni, G., Donat, S. M., Reuter, V. E., & Bajorin, D. F. (2002). Impact of the number of lymph nodes retrieved on outcome in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. J. Urol, 167(3), 1295-1298.

Herr, H. W., Cookson, M. S., & Soloway, S. M. (1996). Upper tract tumors in patients with primary bladder cancer followed for 15 years. J. Urol, 156(4), 1286-1287.

Herr, H. W., & Dalbagni, G. (2003). Defining bacillus Calmette-Guerin refractory superficial bladder tumors. J. Urol, 169(5), 1706-1708.

Herr, H. W., Donat, S. M., & Bajorin, D. F. (2001). Post-chemotherapy surgery in patients with unresectable or regionally metastatic bladder cancer. J. Urol, 165(3), 811-814.

Herr, H. W., Donat, S. M., & Reuter, V. E. (2007). Management of low grade papillary bladder tumors. The Journal of urology, 178(4 Pt 1), 1201-1205; discussion 1205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2007.05.148

Herr, H. W., & Scher, H. I. (1990). Surgery of invasive bladder cancer: is pathologic staging necessary? Semin. Oncol, 17(5), 590-597.

Hindson, B. R., Turner, S. L., Millar, J. L., Foroudi, F., Gogna, N. K., Skala, M., . . . Tai, K. H. (2012). Australian & New Zealand Faculty of Radiation Oncology Genito-Urinary Group: 2011 consensus guidelines for curative radiotherapy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology, 56(1), 18-30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9485.2011.02336.x

Hoffman, A., Yossepowitch, O., Erlich, Y., Holland, R., & Lifshitz, D. (2014). Oncologic results of nephron sparing endoscopic approach for upper tract low grade transitional cell carcinoma in comparison to nephroureterectomy - a case control study. BMC urology, 14, 97. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2490-14-97

Holmang, S., Andius, P., Hedelin, H., Wester, K., Busch, C., & Johansson, S. L. (2001). Stage progression in Ta papillary urothelial tumors: relationship to grade, immunohistochemical expression of tumor markers, mitotic frequency and DNA ploidy. J. Urol, 165(4), 1124-1128.

Holmang, S., & Johansson, S. L. (2002). Stage Ta-T1 bladder cancer: the relationship between findings at first followup cystoscopy and subsequent recurrence and progression. J. Urol, 167(4), 1634-1637.

Huang, L., Kong, Q., Liu, Z., Wang, J., Kang, Z., & Zhu, Y. (2018). The Diagnostic Value of MR Imaging in Differentiating T Staging of Bladder Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. Radiology, 286(2), 502-511. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2017171028

Huncharek, M., Muscat, J., & Geschwind, J. F. (1998). Planned preoperative radiation therapy in muscle invasive bladder cancer; results of a meta-analysis. Anticancer Res, 18(3B), 1931-1934.

Hungerhuber, E., Stepp, H., Kriegmair, M., Stief, C., Hofstetter, A., Hartmann, A., . . . Zaak, D. (2007). Seven years' experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid in detection of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology, 69(2), 260-264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2006.10.015

Hurle, R., Lazzeri, M., Colombo, P., Buffi, N., Morenghi, E., Peschechera, R., . . . Guazzoni, G. (2016). "En Bloc" Resection of Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Prospective Single-center Study. Urology, 90, 126-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2016.01.004

Hurle, R., Losa, A., Manzetti, A., & Lembo, A. (1999). Upper urinary tract tumors developing after treatment of superficial bladder cancer: 7-year follow-up of 591 consecutive patients. Urology, 53(6), 1144-1148.

Inman, B. A., Tran, V. T., Fradet, Y., & Lacombe, L. (2009). Carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: predictors of survival and competing causes of mortality. Cancer, 115(13), 2853-2862. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.24339

International Collaboration of Trialists, Medical Research Council Advanced Bladder Cancer Working Party, European Organisation for Research, Treatment of Cancer Genito-Urinary Tract Cancer Group, Australian Bladder Cancer Study Group, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, . . . Parmar, M. K. (2011). International phase III trial assessing neoadjuvant cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: long-term results of the BA06 30894 trial. J Clin Oncol, 29(16), 2171-2177. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2010.32.3139

Ito, A., Shintaku, I., Satoh, M., Ioritani, N., Aizawa, M., Tochigi, T., . . . Arai, Y. (2013). Prospective randomized phase II trial of a single early intravesical instillation of pirarubicin (THP) in the prevention of bladder recurrence after nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: the THP Monotherapy Study Group Trial. J Clin Oncol, 31(11), 1422-1427. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2012.45.2128

Ito, Y., Kikuchi, E., Tanaka, N., Miyajima, A., Mikami, S., Jinzaki, M., & Oya, M. (2011). Preoperative hydronephrosis grade independently predicts worse pathological outcomes in patients undergoing nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. The Journal of urology, 185(5), 1621-1626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2010.12.035

Jahnson, S., Wiklund, F., Duchek, M., Mestad, O., Rintala, E., Hellsten, S., & Malmstrom, P. U. (2005). Results of second-look resection after primary resection of T1 tumour of the urinary bladder. Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology, 39(3), 206-210.

Jakse, G., Algaba, F., Malmström, P. U., & Oosterlinck, W. (2004). A second-look TUR in T1 transitional cell carcinoma: why? Eur Urol, 45(5), 539-546; discussion 546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2003.12.016

Jakse, G., Hall, R., Bono, A., Holtl, W., Carpentier, P., Spaander, J. P., . . . Sylvester, R. (2001). Intravesical BCG in patients with carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder: long-term results of EORTC GU Group phase II protocol 30861. Eur Urol, 40(2), 144-150.

James, N. D., Hussain, S. A., Hall, E., Jenkins, P., Tremlett, J., Rawlings, C., . . . Huddart, R. A. (2012). Radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The New England journal of medicine, 366(16), 1477-1488. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1106106

Jichlinski, P., Guillou, L., Karlsen, S. J., Malmström, P. U., Jocham, D., Brennhovd, B., . . . Leisinger, H. J. (2003). Hexyl aminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy: new diagnostic tool for photodiagnosis of superficial bladder cancer--a multicenter study. The Journal of urology, 170(1), 226-229. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000060782.52358.04

Kamat, A. M., Dinney, C. P., Gee, J. R., Grossman, H. B., Siefker-Radtke, A. O., Tamboli, P., . . . Pisters, L. L. (2007). Micropapillary bladder cancer: a review of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience with 100 consecutive patients. Cancer, 110(1), 62-67. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22756

Kamat, A. M., Huang, S. F., Bermejo, C. E., Rosser, C. J., Pettaway, C. A., Pisters, P. W., . . . Pisters, L. L. (2003). Total pelvic exenteration: effective palliation of perineal pain in patients with locally recurrent prostate cancer. The Journal of urology, 170(5), 1868-1871. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000091656.94825.90

Karnes, R. J., Breau, R. H., & Lightner, D. J. (2010). Surgery for urethral cancer. The Urologic clinics of North America, 37(3), 445-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ucl.2010.04.011

Kava, B. R., Abol-Enein, H., Baniel, J., Carmack, A., Coquhoun, A., & Turner, W. (2012). Non-urothelial Cancer of the Urinary Bladder. I: M. S. Soloway & S. Khoury (red.), Bladder cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2. utg., s. 409-432). Paris: European Association of Urology og ICUS. Hentet fra http://www.icud.info/PDFs/Bladder%20Cancer%20Second%20Edition%202012.pdf

Khan, M. S., Thornhill, J. A., Gaffney, E., Loftus, B., & Butler, M. R. (2002). Keratinising squamous metaplasia of the bladder: natural history and rationalization of management based on review of 54 years experience. Eur Urol, 42(5), 469-474.

Kiemeney, L. A., Sulem, P., Besenbacher, S., Vermeulen, S. H., Sigurdsson, A., Thorleifsson, G., . . . Stefansson, K. (2010). A sequence variant at 4p16.3 confers susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer. Nature genetics, 42(5), 415-419. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.558

Kim, S. P., Frank, I., Cheville, J. C., Thompson, R. H., Weight, C. J., Thapa, P., & Boorjian, S. A. (2012). The impact of squamous and glandular differentiation on survival after radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma. The Journal of urology, 188(2), 405-409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2012.04.020

Kirkali, Z., Chan, T., Manoharan, M., Algaba, F., Busch, C., Cheng, L., . . . Weider, J. (2005). Bladder cancer: epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis. Urology, 66(6 Suppl 1), 4-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2005.07.062

Koay, E. J., Teh, B. S., Paulino, A. C., & Butler, E. B. (2011). A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results analysis of small cell carcinoma of the bladder: epidemiology, prognostic variables, and treatment trends. Cancer, 117(23), 5325-5333. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26197

Kondo, T., Nakazawa, H., Ito, F., Hashimoto, Y., Toma, H., & Tanabe, K. (2007). Primary site and incidence of lymph node metastases in urothelial carcinoma of upper urinary tract. Urology, 69(2), 265-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2006.10.014

Krajewski, W., Koscielska-Kasprzak, K., Rymaszewska, J., & Zdrojowy, R. (2017). How different cystoscopy methods influence patient sexual satisfaction, anxiety, and depression levels: a randomized prospective trial. Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation, 26(3), 625-634. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-016-1493-1

Kramer, M. W., Altieri, V., Hurle, R., Lusuardi, L., Merseburger, A. S., Rassweiler, J., . . . Herrmann, T. R. W. (2017). Current Evidence of Transurethral En-bloc Resection of Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer. European urology focus, 3(6), 567-576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2016.12.004

Kulkarni, G. S., Hakenberg, O. W., Gschwend, J. E., Thalmann, G., Kassouf, W., Kamat, A., & Zlotta, A. (2010). An updated critical analysis of the treatment strategy for newly diagnosed high-grade T1 (previously T1G3) bladder cancer. Eur. Urol, 57(1), 60-70.

Lagrange, J. L., Bascoul-Mollevi, C., Geoffrois, L., Beckendorf, V., Ferrero, J. M., Joly, F., . . . Study Group on Genito-Urinary, T. (2011). Quality of life assessment after concurrent chemoradiation for invasive bladder cancer: results of a multicenter prospective study (GETUG 97-015). International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 79(1), 172-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.10.038

Lamm, D. L. (1992). Carcinoma in situ. The Urologic clinics of North America, 19(3), 499-508.

Lamm, D. L., Blumenstein, B. A., Crissman, J. D., Montie, J. E., Gottesman, J. E., Lowe, B. A., . . . Crawford, E. D. (2000). Maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy for recurrent TA, T1 and carcinoma in situ transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a randomized Southwest Oncology Group Study. J. Urol, 163(4), 1124-1129.

Lamm, D. L., & Riggs, D. R. (2001). Enhanced immunocompetence by garlic: role in bladder cancer and other malignancies. The Journal of nutrition, 131(3s), 1067s-1070s.

Lammers, R. J., Witjes, W. P., Hendricksen, K., Caris, C. T., Janzing-Pastors, M. H., & Witjes, J. A. (2011). Smoking status is a risk factor for recurrence after transurethral resection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Eur Urol, 60(4), 713-720. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2011.07.010

Larsen, I. K. (red.). (2019). Cancer in Norway 2018. Cancer incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence in Norway. Oslo: Cancer Registry of Norway. Hentet fra https://www.kreftregisteret.no/globalassets/cancer-in-norway/2018/cin2018.pdf

Leblanc, B., Duclos, A. J., Benard, F., Cote, J., Valiquette, L., Paquin, J. M., . . . Perreault, J. P. (1999). Long-term followup of initial Ta grade 1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J. Urol, 162(6), 1946-1950.

Lee, C. H., Tan, C. H., Faria, S. C., & Kundra, V. (2017). Role of Imaging in the Local Staging of Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder. AJR. American journal of roentgenology, 208(6), 1193-1205. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.16.17114

Lee, Y. J., Moon, K. C., Jeong, C. W., Kwak, C., Kim, H. H., & Ku, J. H. (2014). Impact of squamous and glandular differentiation on oncologic outcomes in upper and lower tract urothelial carcinoma. PLoS one, 9(9), e107027. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107027

Lehmann, J., Franzaring, L., Thuroff, J., Wellek, S., & Stockle, M. (2006). Complete long-term survival data from a trial of adjuvant chemotherapy vs control after radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer. BJU international, 97(1), 42-47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.05859.x

Leibovici, D., Kamat, A. M., Pettaway, C. A., Pagliaro, L., Rosser, C. J., Logothetis, C., & Pisters, L. L. (2005). Cystoprostatectomy for effective palliation of symptomatic bladder invasion by prostate cancer. The Journal of urology, 174(6), 2186-2190. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000181826.65272.7b

Leissner, J., Hohenfellner, R., Thuroff, J. W., & Wolf, H. K. (2000). Lymphadenectomy in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder; significance for staging and prognosis. BJU. Int, 85(7), 817-823.

Leow, J. J., Martin-Doyle, W., Rajagopal, P. S., Patel, C. G., Anderson, E. M., Rothman, A. T., . . . Bellmunt, J. (2013). Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Invasive Bladder Cancer: A 2013 Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. Eur Urol, 66(1), 42-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2013.08.033

Li, G., Hu, J., & Niu, Y. (2018). Squamous differentiation in pT1 bladder urothelial carcinoma predicts poor response for intravesical chemotherapy. Oncotarget, 9(1), 217-223. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.18563

Liedberg, F., Chebil, G., & Månsson, W. (2007). Urothelial carcinoma in the prostatic urethra and prostate: current controversies. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther, 7(3), 383-390. https://doi.org/10.1586/14737140.7.3.383

Liguori, G., Amodeo, A., Mucelli, F. P., Patel, H., Marco, D., Belgrano, E., & Trombetta, C. (2010). Intractable haematuria: long-term results after selective embolization of the internal iliac arteries. BJU international, 106(4), 500-503. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.09192.x

Lokeshwar, V. B., Habuchi, T., Grossman, H. B., Murphy, W. M., Hautmann, S. H., Hemstreet, G. P., 3rd, . . . Droller, M. J. (2005). Bladder tumor markers beyond cytology: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers. Urology, 66(6 Suppl 1), 35-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2005.08.064

Loo, R. K., Lieberman, S. F., Slezak, J. M., Landa, H. M., Mariani, A. J., Nicolaisen, G., . . . Jacobsen, S. J. (2013). Stratifying risk of urinary tract malignant tumors in patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. Mayo Clinic proceedings, 88(2), 129-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.10.004

Losa, A., Hurle, R., & Lembo, A. (2000). Low dose bacillus Calmette-Guerin for carcinoma in situ of the bladder: long-term results. The Journal of urology, 163(1), 68-71.

Lotan, Y., & Roehrborn, C. G. (2003). Sensitivity and specificity of commonly available bladder tumor markers versus cytology: results of a comprehensive literature review and meta-analyses. Urology, 61(1), 109-118; discussion 118.

Lughezzani, G., Jeldres, C., Isbarn, H., Shariat, S. F., Sun, M., Pharand, D., . . . Karakiewicz, P. I. (2010). A critical appraisal of the value of lymph node dissection at nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Urology, 75(1), 118-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2009.07.1296

Macejko, A. M., Pazona, J. F., Loeb, S., Kimm, S., & Nadler, R. B. (2008). Management of distal ureter in laparoscopic nephroureterectomy--a comprehensive review of techniques. Urology, 72(5), 974-981. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2008.04.022

Madersbacher, S., Schmidt, J., Eberle, J. M., Thoeny, H. C., Burkhard, F., Hochreiter, W., & Studer, U. E. (2003). Long-term outcome of ileal conduit diversion. J. Urol, 169(3), 985-990.

Majewski, W., & Tarnawski, R. (2009). Acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy for bladder cancer. Clinical oncology, 21(8), 598-609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2009.04.008

Malmstrom, P. U., Skaaheim Haug, E., Bostrom, P. J., Gudjonsson, S., & Bjerggaard Jensen, J. (2019). Progress towards a Nordic standard for the investigation of hematuria: 2019. Scandinavian journal of urology, 53(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/21681805.2018.1555187

Malmström, P. U. (2003). Time to abandon testing for microscopic haematuria in adults? BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 326(7393), 813-815. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7393.813

Mangar, S. A., Foo, K., Norman, A., Khoo, V., Shahidi, M., Dearnaley, D. P., . . . Huddart, R. A. (2006). Evaluating the effect of reducing the high-dose volume on the toxicity of radiotherapy in the treatment of bladder cancer. Clinical oncology, 18(6), 466-473.

Margulis, V., Shariat, S. F., Matin, S. F., Kamat, A. M., Zigeuner, R., Kikuchi, E., . . . Wood, C. G. (2009). Outcomes of radical nephroureterectomy: a series from the Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Collaboration. Cancer, 115(6), 1224-1233. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.24135

Mariappan, P., & Smith, G. (2005). A surveillance schedule for G1Ta bladder cancer allowing efficient use of check cystoscopy and safe discharge at 5 years based on a 25-year prospective database. J. Urol, 173(4), 1108-1111.

Martinez-Pineiro, J. A., Flores, N., Isorna, S., Solsona, E., Sebastian, J. L., Pertusa, C., . . . Madero, R. (2002). Long-term follow-up of a randomized prospective trial comparing a standard 81 mg dose of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin with a reduced dose of 27 mg in superficial bladder cancer. BJU. Int, 89(7), 671-680.

Martinez-Pineiro, J. A., Martinez-Pineiro, L., Solsona, E., Rodriguez, R. H., Gomez, J. M., Martin, M. G., . . . Madero, R. (2005). Has a 3-fold decreased dose of bacillus Calmette-Guerin the same efficacy against recurrences and progression of T1G3 and Tis bladder tumors than the standard dose? Results of a prospective randomized trial. J. Urol, 174(4 Pt 1), 1242-1247.

Matin, S. F., Sfakianos, J. P., Espiritu, P. N., Coleman, J. A., & Spiess, P. E. (2015). Patterns of Lymphatic Metastases in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma and Proposed Dissection Templates. The Journal of urology, 194(6), 1567-1574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.06.077

Matulay, J. T., Narayan, V. M., & Kamat, A. M. (2019). Clinical and Genomic Considerations for Variant Histology in Bladder Cancer. Current oncology reports, 21(3), 23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11912-019-0772-8

Matzkin, H., Soloway, M. S., & Hardeman, S. (1991). Transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate. The Journal of urology, 146(5), 1207-1212.

Maurer, T., Horn, T., Heck, M., Gschwend, J. E., Eiber, M., & Beer, A. J. (2013). Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer. Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 3(3), 315-324. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics3030315

Medikamentell kreftbehandling, Cytostatikaboken. (2009). (7. utg.). Oslo: Farmakologisk institutt, Det medisinske fakultet, Universitetet i Oslo.

Melicow, M. M. (1955). Tumors of the urinary bladder: a clinico-pathological analysis of over 2500 specimens and biopsies. The Journal of urology, 74(4), 498-521. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-5347(17)67309-9

Metcalfe, M. J., Petros, F. G., Rao, P., Mork, M. E., Xiao, L., Broaddus, R. R., & Matin, S. F. (2018). Universal Point of Care Testing for Lynch Syndrome in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma. The Journal of urology, 199(1), 60-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2017.08.002

Miladi, M., Peyromaure, M., Zerbib, M., Saighi, D., & Debre, B. (2003). The value of a second transurethral resection in evaluating patients with bladder tumours. Eur. Urol, 43(3), 241-245.

Millikan, R., Dinney, C., Swanson, D., Sweeney, P., Ro, J. Y., Smith, T. L., . . . Logothetis, C. (2001). Integrated therapy for locally advanced bladder cancer: final report of a randomized trial of cystectomy plus adjuvant M-VAC versus cystectomy with both preoperative and postoperative M-VAC. J. Clin. Oncol, 19(20), 4005-4013.

Mirza, A., & Choudhury, A. (2016). Bladder Preservation for Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer. Bladder cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 2(2), 151-163. https://doi.org/10.3233/blc-150025

Moch, H., Humphrey, P. A., Ulbright, T. M., & Reuter, V. E. (red.). (2016). WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs (4. utg.). Lyon: IARC.

Mohr, D. N., Offord, K. P., & Melton, L. J., 3rd. (1987). Isolated asymptomatic microhematuria: a cross-sectional analysis of test-positive and test-negative patients. Journal of general internal medicine, 2(5), 318-324.

Moloney, F., Murphy, K. P., Twomey, M., O'Connor, O. J., & Maher, M. M. (2014). Haematuria: an imaging guide. Advances in urology, 2014, 414125. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/414125

Mork, M., Hubosky, S. G., Rouprêt, M., Margulis, V., Raman, J., Lotan, Y., . . . Matin, S. F. (2015). Lynch Syndrome: A Primer for Urologists and Panel Recommendations. The Journal of urology, 194(1), 21-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.02.081

Moschini, M., D'Andrea, D., Korn, S., Irmak, Y., Soria, F., Compérat, E., & Shariat, S. F. (2017). Characteristics and clinical significance of histological variants of bladder cancer. Nature reviews. Urology, 14(11), 651-668. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrurol.2017.125

Mostofi, F. K., Davis, C. J., & Sesterhenn, I. A. (1999). Histological typing of urinary bladder tumours (2. utg.). Berlin og New York: Springer.

Mostofi, F. K., Sobin, L. H., & Torloni, H. (1973). Histological typing of urinary bladder tumours (International histological classification of tumours No. 10). Geneva: World Health Orgaization. Hentet fra http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/41533/1/9241760109_eng.pdf

Mowatt, G., N'Dow, J., Vale, L., Nabi, G., Boachie, C., Cook, J. A., . . . Griffiths, T. R. (2011). Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white light cystoscopy: Systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of technology assessment in health care, 27(1), 3-10. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0266462310001364

Mungan, M. U., Canda, A. E., Tuzel, E., Yorukoglu, K., & Kirkali, Z. (2005). Risk factors for mucosal prostatic urethral involvement in superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Eur Urol, 48(5), 760-763. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2005.05.021

Myers, J. B., & Lenherr, S. M. (2016). Perioperative and long-term surgical complications for the Indiana pouch and similar continent catheterizable urinary diversions. Current opinion in urology, 26(4), 376-382. https://doi.org/10.1097/mou.0000000000000300

Naito, S., Algaba, F., Babjuk, M., Bryan, R. T., Sun, Y. H., Valiquette, L., & de la Rosette, J. (2016). The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Multicentre Randomised Trial of Narrow Band Imaging-Assisted Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumour (TURBT) Versus Conventional White Light Imaging-Assisted TURBT in Primary Non-Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer Patients: Trial Protocol and 1-year Results. Eur Urol, 70(3), 506-515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2016.03.053

Nasjonal helseplan (2007-2010). (2006). (Særtrykk av St.prp. nr. 1 (2006–2007) kapittel 6). Oslo: Helse- og omsorgsdepartemenetet. Hentet fra http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/HOD/Sykehus/Nasjonal_helseplan_Sartrykk.pdf

Nasjonal strategi for kreftområdet 2006-2009. (2006). Oslo: Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet. Hentet fra https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/hod/sykehus/kreftstrategi-2006-2009.pdf

Nasjonale faglige retningslinjer, veiledere og kvalitetsindikatorer. § 12-5 I: Lov om kommunale helse- og omsorgstjenester m.m. (helse- og omsorgstjenesteloven). LOV-2011-06-24-30. Hentet fra https://lovdata.no/lov/2011-06-24-30/§12-5

Nasjonalt handlingsprogram med retningslinjer for diagnostikk, behandling og oppfølging av kreft i tykktarm og endetarm. (2017). (IS-2644). Oslo: Helsedirektoratet. Hentet fra https://helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/nasjonalt-handlingsprogram-med-retningslinjer-for-diagnostikk-behandling-og-oppfolging-av-kreft-i-tykktarm-og-endetarm

Neal, D. E. (1985). Complications of ileal conduit diversion in adults with cancer followed up for at least five years. Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed), 290(6483), 1695-1697.

Nelles, J. L., Konety, B. R., Saigal, C., Pace, J., Lai, J., & Urologic Diseases in America Project. (2008). Urethrectomy following cystectomy for bladder cancer in men: practice patterns and impact on survival. The Journal of urology, 180(5), 1933-1936; discussion 1936-1937. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2008.07.039

Nguyen, D. P., Al Hussein Al Awamlh, B., Wu, X., O'Malley, P., Inoyatov, I. M., Ayangbesan, A., . . . Scherr, D. S. (2015). Recurrence patterns after open and robot-assisted radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Eur Urol, 68(3), 399-405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.02.003

Nieuwenhuijzen, J. A., Bex, A., Meinhardt, W., Kerst, J. M., Schornagel, J. H., H, V. A. N. T., & Horenblas, S. (2005). Neoadjuvant methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin for histologically proven lymph node positive bladder cancer. The Journal of urology, 174(1), 80-85. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000162018.40891.ba

Nieuwenhuijzen, J. A., Horenblas, S., Meinhardt, W., van Tinteren, H., & Moonen, L. M. (2004). Salvage cystectomy after failure of interstitial radiotherapy and external beam radiotherapy for bladder cancer. BJU international, 94(6), 793-797. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2004.05034.x

Novara, G., Catto, J. W., Wilson, T., Annerstedt, M., Chan, K., Murphy, D. G., . . . Yuh, B. (2015). Systematic review and cumulative analysis of perioperative outcomes and complications after robot-assisted radical cystectomy. Eur Urol, 67(3), 376-401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.12.007

O'Brien, T., Ray, E., Singh, R., Coker, B., & Beard, R. (2011). Prevention of bladder tumours after nephroureterectomy for primary upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: a prospective, multicentre, randomised clinical trial of a single postoperative intravesical dose of mitomycin C (the ODMIT-C Trial). Eur Urol, 60(4), 703-710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2011.05.064

O'Connor, O. J., Fitzgerald, E., & Maher, M. M. (2010). Imaging of hematuria. AJR. American journal of roentgenology, 195(4), W263-267. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.09.4181

Oddens, J., Brausi, M., Sylvester, R., Bono, A., van de Beek, C., van Andel, G., . . . Oosterlinck, W. (2013). Final results of an EORTC-GU cancers group randomized study of maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin in intermediate- and high-risk Ta, T1 papillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder: one-third dose versus full dose and 1 year versus 3 years of maintenance. Eur Urol, 63(3), 462-472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2012.10.039

Oge, O., Erdem, E., Atsü, N., ahin, A., & Ozen, H. (2000). Proposal for changes in cystoscopic follow-up of patients with low-grade pTa bladder tumor. Eur. Urol, 37(3), 271-274.

Oing, C., Rink, M., Oechsle, K., Seidel, C., von Amsberg, G., & Bokemeyer, C. (2016). Second Line Chemotherapy for Advanced and Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: Vinflunine and Beyond-A Comprehensive Review of the Current Literature. The Journal of urology, 195(2), 254-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.06.115

Oliai, C., Fisher, B., Jani, A., Wong, M., Poli, J., Brady, L. W., & Komarnicky, L. T. (2012). Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 84(3), 733-740. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.12.056

Onishi, T., Sasaki, T., Hoshina, A., & Yabana, T. (2011). Continuous saline bladder irrigation after transurethral resection is a prophylactic treatment choice for non-muscle invasive bladder tumor. Anticancer Res, 31(4), 1471-1474.

Onishi, T., Sugino, Y., Shibahara, T., Masui, S., Yabana, T., & Sasaki, T. (2017). Randomized controlled study of the efficacy and safety of continuous saline bladder irrigation after transurethral resection for the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. BJU international, 119(2), 276-282. https://doi.org/10.1111/bju.13599

Oosterhuis, J. W., Schapers, R. F., Janssen-Heijnen, M. L., Pauwels, R. P., Newling, D. W., & ten Kate, F. (2002). Histological grading of papillary urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system and comparison with conventional grading systems. Journal of clinical pathology, 55(12), 900-905.

Oosterlinck, W., Kurth, K. H., Schröder, F., Bultinck, J., Hammond, B., & Sylvester, R. (1993). A prospective European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genitourinary Group randomized trial comparing transurethral resection followed by a single intravesical instillation of epirubicin or water in single stage Ta, T1 papillary carcinoma of the bladder. The Journal of urology, 149(4), 749-752.

Ordell Sundelin, M., & Jensen, J. B. (2017). Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria as a predictor of neoplasia in the urinary tract. Scandinavian journal of urology, 51(5), 373-375. https://doi.org/10.1080/21681805.2017.1334699

Pakkerforløp for blærekreft. (2016). (rev. utg.). (IS-2520). Oslo: Helsedirektoratet. Hentet fra https://helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/pakkeforlop-for-blerekreft

Palou, J., Baniel, J., Klotz, L., Wood, D., Cookson, M., Lerner, S., . . . Bassi, P. (2007). Urothelial carcinoma of the prostate. Urology, 69(1 Suppl), 50-61.

Parkin, D. M., Boyd, L., & Walker, L. C. (2011). 16. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. British journal of cancer, 105(Suppl 2), S77-81. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2011.489

Pashos, C. L., Botteman, M. F., Laskin, B. L., & Redaelli, A. (2002). Bladder cancer: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. Cancer practice, 10(6), 311-322.

Picozzi, S. C., Ricci, C., Gaeta, M., Casellato, S., Bozzini, G., Ratti, D., & Carmignani, L. (2012). Is it oncologically safe performing simultaneous transurethral resection of the bladder and prostate? A meta-analysis on 1,234 patients. International urology and nephrology, 44(5), 1325-1333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255-012-0183-3

Plimack, E. R., Hoffman-Censits, J. H., Viterbo, R., Trabulsi, E. J., Ross, E. A., Greenberg, R. E., . . . Hudes, G. R. (2014). Accelerated Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin Is Safe, Effective, and Efficient Neoadjuvant Treatment for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Phase II Study With Molecular Correlates of Response and Toxicity. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 32(18), 1895-1901. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2013.53.2465

Ploussard, G., Daneshmand, S., Efstathiou, J. A., Herr, H. W., James, N. D., Rodel, C. M., . . . Kassouf, W. (2014). Critical Analysis of Bladder Sparing with Trimodal Therapy in Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review. Eur Urol, 66(1), 120-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.02.038

Porter, M. P., Gore, J. L., & Wright, J. L. (2011). Hospital volume and 90-day mortality risk after radical cystectomy: a population-based cohort study. World journal of urology, 29(1), 73-77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-010-0626-3

Porter, M. P., Kerrigan, M. C., Donato, B. M., & Ramsey, S. D. (2011). Patterns of use of systemic chemotherapy for Medicare beneficiaries with urothelial bladder cancer. Urologic oncology, 29(3), 252-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.03.021

Poulsen, A. L., Horn, T., & Steven, K. (1998). Radical cystectomy: extending the limits of pelvic lymph node dissection improves survival for patients with bladder cancer confined to the bladder wall. J. Urol, 160(6 Pt 1), 2015-2019.

Powles, T., Durán, I., van der Heijden, M. S., Loriot, Y., Vogelzang, N. J., De Giorgi, U., . . . Ravaud, A. (2018). Atezolizumab versus chemotherapy in patients with platinum-treated locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (IMvigor211): a multicentre, open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 391(10122), 748-757. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(17)33297-x

Powles, T., Park, S. H., Voog, E., Caserta, C., Valderrama, B. P., Gurney, H., . . . Grivas, P. (2020). Avelumab Maintenance Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma. The New England journal of medicine, 383(13), 1218-1230. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2002788

Pruthi, R. S., Baldwin, N., Bhalani, V., & Wallen, E. M. (2008). Conservative management of low risk superficial bladder tumors. The Journal of urology, 179(1), 87-90; discussion 90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2007.08.171

Raggi, D., Miceli, R., Sonpavde, G., Giannatempo, P., Mariani, L., Galsky, M. D., . . . Necchi, A. (2016). Second-line single-agent versus doublet chemotherapy as salvage therapy for metastatic urothelial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO, 27(1), 49-61. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdv509

Raitanen, M. P., Aine, R., Rintala, E., Kallio, J., Rajala, P., Juusela, H., & Tammela, T. L. (2002). Differences between local and review urinary cytology in diagnosis of bladder cancer. An interobserver multicenter analysis. Eur Urol, 41(3), 284-289.

Raman, J. D., Shariat, S. F., Karakiewicz, P. I., Lotan, Y., Sagalowsky, A. I., Roscigno, M., . . . Margulis, V. (2011). Does preoperative symptom classification impact prognosis in patients with clinically localized upper-tract urothelial carcinoma managed by radical nephroureterectomy? Urologic oncology, 29(6), 716-723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.11.007

Ray, E. R., Chatterton, K., Khan, M. S., Chandra, A., Thomas, K., Dasgupta, P., & O'Brien, T. S. (2010). Hexylaminolaevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy in patients previously treated with intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin. BJU international, 105(6), 789-794. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.08839.x

Renal pelvis and ureter. I. (2017). M. Amin, S. Edge, F. Greene, D. R. Byrd, R. K. Brookland, M. K. Washington, & J. E. Gershenwald (red.), AJCC cancer staging manual (8. utg., s. 757-765). Chicago: American Joint Committee on Cancer, Springer

Rink, M., Crivelli, J. J., Shariat, S. F., Chun, F. K., Messing, E. M., & Soloway, M. S. (2015). Smoking and Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review of Risk and Outcomes. European urology focus, 1(1), 17-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2014.11.001

Rink, M., Furberg, H., Zabor, E. C., Xylinas, E., Babjuk, M., Pycha, A., . . . Shariat, S. F. (2013). Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on oncologic outcomes in primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Eur Urol, 63(4), 724-732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2012.08.025

Rojas, C. P., Castle, S. M., Llanos, C. A., Santos Cortes, J. A., Bird, V., Rodriguez, S., . . . Jorda, M. (2013). Low biopsy volume in ureteroscopy does not affect tumor biopsy grading in upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Urologic oncology, 31(8), 1696-1700. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2012.05.010

Roscigno, M., Brausi, M., Heidenreich, A., Lotan, Y., Margulis, V., Shariat, S. F., . . . Zigeuner, R. (2011). Lymphadenectomy at the time of nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial cancer. Eur Urol, 60(4), 776-783. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2011.07.009

Roscigno, M., Shariat, S. F., Margulis, V., Karakiewicz, P., Remzi, M., Kikuchi, E., . . . Montorsi, F. (2009). The extent of lymphadenectomy seems to be associated with better survival in patients with nonmetastatic upper-tract urothelial carcinoma: how many lymph nodes should be removed? Eur Urol, 56(3), 512-518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2009.06.004

Rosenberg, J. E., Carroll, P. R., & Small, E. J. (2005). Update on chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer. J. Urol, 174(1), 14-20.

Rosenthal, D. L., wojcik, E. M., & Kurtycz, D. F. I. (red.). (2016). The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology. Dordrecht: Springer.

Rota, M., Bosetti, C., Boccia, S., Boffetta, P., & La Vecchia, C. (2014). Occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respiratory and urinary tract cancers: an updated systematic review and a meta-analysis to 2014. Archives of toxicology, 88(8), 1479-1490. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-014-1296-5

Roth, B., Wissmeyer, M. P., Zehnder, P., Birkhauser, F. D., Thalmann, G. N., Krause, T. M., & Studer, U. E. (2010). A new multimodality technique accurately maps the primary lymphatic landing sites of the bladder. Eur. Urol, 57(2), 205-211.

Rothman, N., Garcia-Closas, M., Chatterjee, N., Malats, N., Wu, X., Figueroa, J. D., . . . Chanock, S. J. (2010). A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci. Nature genetics, 42(11), 978-984. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.687

Rouprët, M., Babjuk, M., Compérat, E., Zigeuner, R., Sylvester, R., Burger, M., . . . Shariat, S. F. (2013). European guidelines on upper tract urothelial carcinomas: 2013 update. Eur Urol, 63(6), 1059-1071. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2013.03.032

Rouprêt, M., Babjuk, M., Compérat, E., Zigeuner, R., Sylvester, R. J., Burger, M., . . . Shariat, S. F. (2015). European Association of Urology Guidelines on Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma: 2015 Update. Eur Urol, 68(5), 868-879. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.06.044

Sammen - mot kreft: nasjonal kreftstrategi 2013–2017. (2013). Oslo: Helse- og omsrogsdepartementet. Hentet fra https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/07cd14ff763444a3997de1570b85fad1/kreftstrategien_2013.pdf

Sanchez-Ortiz, R. F., Huang, W. C., Mick, R., Van Arsdalen, K. N., Wein, A. J., & Malkowicz, S. B. (2003). An interval longer than 12 weeks between the diagnosis of muscle invasion and cystectomy is associated with worse outcome in bladder carcinoma. J. Urol, 169(1), 110-115.

Saylor, P. J., Armstrong, A. J., Fizazi, K., Freedland, S., Saad, F., Smith, M. R., . . . Pienta, K. (2013). New and emerging therapies for bone metastases in genitourinary cancers. Eur Urol, 63(2), 309-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2012.10.007

Schmidbauer, J., Witjes, F., Schmeller, N., Donat, R., Susani, M., Marberger, M., & Hexvix PCB301/01 Study Group. (2004). Improved detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ with hexaminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy. The Journal of urology, 171(1), 135-138. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000100480.70769.0e

Scosyrev, E., Ely, B. W., Messing, E. M., Speights, V. O., Grossman, H. B., Wood, D. P., . . . Thompson, I. M. (2011). Do mixed histological features affect survival benefit from neoadjuvant platinum-based combination chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer? A secondary analysis of Southwest Oncology Group-Directed Intergroup Study (S8710). BJU international, 108(5), 693-699. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09900.x

Seisen, T., Krasnow, R. E., Bellmunt, J., Rouprêt, M., Leow, J. J., Lipsitz, S. R., . . . Chang, S. L. (2017). Effectiveness of Adjuvant Chemotherapy After Radical Nephroureterectomy for Locally Advanced and/or Positive Regional Lymph Node Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma. J Clin Oncol, 35(8), 852-860. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2016.69.4141

Sengelov, L., & von der Maase, H. (1999). Radiotherapy in bladder cancer. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, 52(1), 1-14.

Serretta, V., Altieri, V., Morgia, G., Di Lallo, A., Carrieri, G., & Allegro, R. (2013). Cigarette smoking status at diagnosis and recurrence in intermediate-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma. Urology, 81(2), 277-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2012.09.040

Serretta, V., Pavone, C., Ingargiola, G. B., Daricello, G., Allegro, R., & Pavone-Macaluso, M. (2004). TUR and adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy in T1G3 bladder tumors: recurrence, progression and survival in 137 selected patients followed up to 20 years. Eur. Urol, 45(6), 730-735.

Shabsigh, A., Korets, R., Vora, K. C., Brooks, C. M., Cronin, A. M., Savage, C., . . . Donat, S. M. (2009). Defining early morbidity of radical cystectomy for patients with bladder cancer using a standardized reporting methodology. Eur Urol, 55(1), 164-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2008.07.031

Shapur, N. K., Katz, R., Pode, D., Shapiro, A., Yutkin, V., Pizov, G., . . . Gofrit, O. N. (2011). Is radical cystectomy mandatory in every patient with variant histology of bladder cancer. Rare Tumors, 3(2), e22. https://doi.org/10.4081/rt.2011.e22

Sharks, J. H., Chandra, A., McWilliam, L., & Varma, M. (2013). Standards and datasets for reporting cancers: dataset for tumours of the urinary collecting  system (renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra) (2. utg.). London: The Royal College of Pathologists. Hentet fra https://www.rcpath.org/asset/E2C11FF6-780A-471E-A21A4DC48788D35B/

Sharma, P., Retz, M., Siefker-Radtke, A., Baron, A., Necchi, A., Bedke, J., . . . Galsky, M. D. (2017). Nivolumab in metastatic urothelial carcinoma after platinum therapy (CheckMate 275): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial. The Lancet. Oncology, 18(3), 312-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(17)30065-7

Shelley, M. D., Kynaston, H., Court, J., Wilt, T. J., Coles, B., Burgon, K., & Mason, M. D. (2001). A systematic review of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin plus transurethral resection vs transurethral resection alone in Ta and T1 bladder cancer. BJU. Int, 88(3), 209-216.

Shelley, M. D., Wilt, T. J., Court, J., Coles, B., Kynaston, H., & Mason, M. D. (2004). Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin is superior to mitomycin C in reducing tumour recurrence in high-risk superficial bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. BJU. Int, 93(4), 485-490.

Shipley, W. U., Kaufman, D. S., Zehr, E., Heney, N. M., Lane, S. C., Thakral, H. K., . . . Zietman, A. L. (2002). Selective bladder preservation by combined modality protocol treatment: long-term outcomes of 190 patients with invasive bladder cancer. Urology, 60(1), 62-67; discussion 67-68.

Simone, G., Papalia, R., Guaglianone, S., Ferriero, M., Leonardo, C., Forastiere, E., & Gallucci, M. (2009). Laparoscopic versus open nephroureterectomy: perioperative and oncologic outcomes from a randomised prospective study. Eur Urol, 56(3), 520-526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2009.06.013

Skinner, D. G., Daniels, J. R., Russell, C. A., Lieskovsky, G., Boyd, S. D., Nichols, P., . . . Groshen, S. (1991). The role of adjuvant chemotherapy following cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer: a prospective comparative trial. J. Urol, 145(3), 459-464.

Soloway, M. S., Bruck, D. S., & Kim, S. S. (2003). Expectant management of small, recurrent, noninvasive papillary bladder tumors. J. Urol, 170(2 Pt 1), 438-441.

Solsona, E., Iborra, I., Dumont, R., Rubio-Briones, J., Casanova, J., & Almenar, S. (2000). The 3-month clinical response to intravesical therapy as a predictive factor for progression in patients with high risk superficial bladder cancer. J. Urol, 164(3 Pt 1), 685-689.

Solsona, E., Iborra, I., Ricós, J. V., Monrós, J. L., Casanova, J., & Dumont, R. (1999). Effectiveness of a single immediate mitomycin C instillation in patients with low risk superficial bladder cancer: short and long-term followup. The Journal of urology, 161(4), 1120-1123.

Son, S. K., Lee, N. R., Kang, S. H., & Lee, S. H. (2017). Safety and Effectiveness of Robot-Assisted Versus Open Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A, 27(11), 1109-1120. https://doi.org/10.1089/lap.2016.0437

Sosnowski, R., & Przewozniak, K. (2014). The role of the urologist in smoking cessation: Why is it important? Urologic oncology, 33(1), 30-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2014.07.011

Spiess, P. E., Kassouf, W., Brown, G., Highshaw, R., Wang, X., Do, K. A., . . . Grossman, H. B. (2006). Immediate versus staged urethrectomy in patients at high risk of urethral recurrence: is there a benefit to either approach? Urology, 67(3), 466-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2005.09.043

Stein, J. P., Clark, P., Miranda, G., Cai, J., Groshen, S., & Skinner, D. G. (2005). Urethral tumor recurrence following cystectomy and urinary diversion: clinical and pathological characteristics in 768 male patients. J. Urol, 173(4), 1163-1168.

Stenzl, A., Bartsch, G., & Rogatsch, H. (2002). The remnant urothelium after reconstructive bladder surgery. Eur. Urol, 41(2), 124-131.

Stenzl, A., Burger, M., Fradet, Y., Mynderse, L. A., Soloway, M. S., Witjes, J. A., . . . Grossman, H. B. (2010). Hexaminolevulinate guided fluorescence cystoscopy reduces recurrence in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. The Journal of urology, 184(5), 1907-1913. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2010.06.148

Stenzl, A., Cowan, N. C., De, S. M., Kuczyk, M. A., Merseburger, A. S., Ribal, M. J., . . . Witjes, J. A. (2011). Treatment of muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer: update of the EAU guidelines. Eur. Urol, 59(6), 1009-1018.

Stenzl, A., Nagele, U., Kuczyk, M., Sievert, K.-D., Anastasiadis, A., Seibold, J., & Corvin, S. (2005). Cystectomy - Technical Considerations in Male and Female Patients. EAU Update Series, 3(3), 138-146.

Stenzl, A., Witjes, J. A., Cowan, N. C., De Santis, M., Kuczyk, M., Lebret, T., . . . Sherif, A. (2011). Guidelines on bladder cancer, muscle-invasive and metastatic. Arnhem: European Association of Urology. Hentet fra http://www.uroweb.org/gls/pdf/07_%20Bladder%20Cancer.pdf

Sternberg, C. N., Bellmunt, J., Sonpavde, G., Siefker-Radtke, A. O., Stadler, W. M., Bajorin, D. F., . . . International Consultation on Urologic Disease-European Association of Urology Consultation on Bladder, C. (2013). ICUD-EAU International Consultation on Bladder Cancer 2012: Chemotherapy for urothelial carcinoma-neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. Eur Urol, 63(1), 58-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2012.08.010

Sternberg, C. N., Pansadoro, V., Calabro, F., Schnetzer, S., Giannarelli, D., Emiliozzi, P., . . . Amini, M. (2003). Can patient selection for bladder preservation be based on response to chemotherapy? Cancer, 97(7), 1644-1652.

Sternberg, C. N., Skoneczna, I., Kerst, J. M., Albers, P., Fossa, S. D., Agerbaek, M., . . . Sylvester, R. (2015). Immediate versus deferred chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (EORTC 30994): an intergroup, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. The Lancet. Oncology, 16(1), 76-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(14)71160-x

Sternberg, C. N., & Vogelzang, N. J. (2003). Gemcitabine, paclitaxel, pemetrexed and other newer agents in urothelial and kidney cancers. Crit Rev. Oncol. Hematol, 46(Suppl), S105-S115.

Stockle, M., Meyenburg, W., Wellek, S., Voges, G. E., Rossmann, M., Gertenbach, U., . . . Hohenfellner, R. (1995). Adjuvant polychemotherapy of nonorgan-confined bladder cancer after radical cystectomy revisited: long-term results of a controlled prospective study and further clinical experience. J. Urol, 153(1), 47-52.

Studer, U. E., & Collette, L. (2006). Morbidity from pelvic lymphadenectomy in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Eur. Urol, 50(5), 887-889.

Sugihara, T., Yasunaga, H., Horiguchi, H., Matsui, H., Nishimatsu, H., Nakagawa, T., . . . Homma, Y. (2014). Comparison of perioperative outcomes including severe bladder injury between monopolar and bipolar transurethral resection of bladder tumors: a population based comparison. The Journal of urology, 192(5), 1355-1359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2014.05.100

Svatek, R. S., Shariat, S. F., Lasky, R. E., Skinner, E. C., Novara, G., Lerner, S. P., . . . Dinney, C. P. (2010). The effectiveness of off-protocol adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 16(17), 4461-4467. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-0457

Sweeney, M. K., Rais-Bahrami, S., & Gordetsky, J. (2017). Inverted urothelial papilloma: A review of diagnostic pitfalls and clinical management. Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada, 11(1-2), 66-69. https://doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.4136

Sweeney, P., Millikan, R., Donat, M., Wood, C. G., Radtke, A. S., Pettaway, C. A., . . . Pisters, L. L. (2003). Is there a therapeutic role for post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder? The Journal of urology, 169(6), 2113-2117. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000067601.29966.4a

Sylvester, R. J., Oosterlinck, W., Holmang, S., Sydes, M. R., Birtle, A., Gudjonsson, S., . . . Babjuk, M. (2016). Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials Comparing a Single Immediate Instillation of Chemotherapy After Transurethral Resection with Transurethral Resection Alone in Patients with Stage pTa-pT1 Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder: Which Patients Benefit from the Instillation? Eur Urol, 69(2), 231-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.05.050

Sylvester, R. J., van der Meijden, A., Witjes, J. A., Jakse, G., Nonomura, N., Cheng, C., . . . Kurth, K. H. (2005). High-grade Ta urothelial carcinoma and carcinoma in situ of the bladder. Urology, 66(6 Suppl 1), 90-107.

Sylvester, R. J., van der Meijden, A. P., & Lamm, D. L. (2002). Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin reduces the risk of progression in patients with superficial bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of the published results of randomized clinical trials. J. Urol, 168(5), 1964-1970.

Sylvester, R. J., van der Meijden, A. P., Oosterlinck, W., Witjes, J. A., Bouffioux, C., Denis, L., . . . Kurth, K. (2006). Predicting recurrence and progression in individual patients with stage Ta T1 bladder cancer using EORTC risk tables: a combined analysis of 2596 patients from seven EORTC trials. Eur. Urol, 49(3), 466-465.

Søndergaard, J., Holmberg, M., Jakobsen, A. R., Agerbæk, M., Muren, L. P., & Høyer, M. (2014). A comparison of morbidity following conformal versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer. Acta Oncol, 53(10), 1321-1328. https://doi.org/10.3109/0284186X.2014.928418

Takenaka, A., Yamada, Y., Miyake, H., Hara, I., & Fujisawa, M. (2008). Clinical outcomes of bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillation therapy for carcinoma in situ of urinary bladder. International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association, 15(4), 309-313. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2042.2008.02012.x

Takeuchi, M., Konrad, A. J., Kawashima, A., Boorjian, S. A., & Takahashi, N. (2015). CT Urography for Diagnosis of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: Are Both Nephrographic and Excretory Phases Necessary? AJR. American journal of roentgenology, 205(3), W320-327. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.14.14075

Tan, W. S., Khetrapal, P., Tan, W. P., Rodney, S., Chau, M., & Kelly, J. D. (2016). Robotic Assisted Radical Cystectomy with Extracorporeal Urinary Diversion Does Not Show a Benefit over Open Radical Cystectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials. PLoS one, 11(11), e0166221. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166221

Tanrikut, C., & McDougal, W. S. (2004). Acid-base and electrolyte disorders after urinary diversion. World J. Urol, 22(3), 168-171.

Teoh, J. Y., Chan, E. S., Yip, S. Y., Tam, H. M., Chiu, P. K., Yee, C. H., . . . Ng, C. F. (2017). Comparison of Detrusor Muscle Sampling Rate in Monopolar and Bipolar Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor: A Randomized Trial. Annals of surgical oncology, 24(5), 1428-1434. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-016-5700-7

Thoeny, H. C., Sonnenschein, M. J., Madersbacher, S., Vock, P., & Studer, U. E. (2002). Is ileal orthotopic bladder substitution with an afferent tubular segment detrimental to the upper urinary tract in the long term? J. Urol, 168(5), 2030-2034.

TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours. (2017). (8. utg.). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.

Torbrand, C., Håkansson, U., Ehrnström, R., & Liedberg, F. (2017). Diagnosing Distal Urethral Carcinomas in Men Might Be Only the Tip of the Iceberg. Clin Genitourin Cancer, 15(6), e1131-e1135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2017.07.006

Touijer, A. K., & Dalbagni, G. (2004). Role of voided urine cytology in diagnosing primary urethral carcinoma. Urology, 63(1), 33-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2003.08.007

Tsivian, A., Shtricker, A., & Sidi, A. A. (2003). Simultaneous transurethral resection of bladder tumor and benign prostatic hyperplasia: hazardous or a safe timesaver? The Journal of urology, 170(6 Pt 1), 2241-2243. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000096273.64448.e7

Tubiana, M. (2009). Can we reduce the incidence of second primary malignancies occurring after radiotherapy? A critical review. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, 91(1), 4-15; discussion 11-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2008.12.016

Urinary Bladder. I. (2010). D. H. Sobin, M. K. Gospodarwicz, & C. Wittekind (red.), TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (7. utg., s. 262-265). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Van Der Meijden, A., Sylvester, R., Collette, L., Bono, A., & Ten Kate, F. (2000). The role and impact of pathology review on stage and grade assessment of stages Ta and T1 bladder tumors: a combined analysis of 5 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Trials. The Journal of urology, 164(5), 1533-1537.

van der Meijden, A. P., Sylvester, R. J., Oosterlinck, W., Hoeltl, W., & Bono, A. V. (2003). Maintenance Bacillus Calmette-Guerin for Ta T1 bladder tumors is not associated with increased toxicity: results from a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genito-Urinary Group Phase III Trial. Eur. Urol, 44(4), 429-434.

van der Molen, A. J., Reimer, P., Dekkers, I. A., Bongartz, G., Bellin, M. F., Bertolotto, M., . . . Thomsen, H. S. (2018a). Post-contrast acute kidney injury - Part 1: Definition, clinical features, incidence, role of contrast medium and risk factors : Recommendations for updated ESUR Contrast Medium Safety Committee guidelines. European radiology, 28(7), 2845-2855. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-017-5246-5

van der Molen, A. J., Reimer, P., Dekkers, I. A., Bongartz, G., Bellin, M. F., Bertolotto, M., . . . Thomsen, H. S. (2018b). Post-contrast acute kidney injury. Part 2: risk stratification, role of hydration and other prophylactic measures, patients taking metformin and chronic dialysis patients : Recommendations for updated ESUR Contrast Medium Safety Committee guidelines. European radiology, 28(7), 2856-2869. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-017-5247-4

van der Post, R. S., Kiemeney, L. A., Ligtenberg, M. J., Witjes, J. A., Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C. A., Bodmer, D., . . . Hoogerbrugge, N. (2010). Risk of urothelial bladder cancer in Lynch syndrome is increased, in particular among MSH2 mutation carriers. Journal of medical genetics, 47(7), 464-470. https://doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2010.076992

van Rhijn, B. W., van der Kwast, T. H., Vis, A. N., Kirkels, W. J., Boevé, E. R., Jöbsis, A. C., & Zwarthoff, E. C. (2004). FGFR3 and P53 characterize alternative genetic pathways in the pathogenesis of urothelial cell carcinoma. Cancer research, 64(6), 1911-1914.

van Rhijn, B. W., van der Poel, H. G., & van der Kwast, T. H. (2005). Urine markers for bladder cancer surveillance: a systematic review. Eur Urol, 47(6), 736-748. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2005.03.014

Vasen, H. F., Möslein, G., Alonso, A., Bernstein, I., Bertario, L., Blanco, I., . . . Wijnen, J. (2007). Guidelines for the clinical management of Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis cancer). Journal of medical genetics, 44(6), 353-362. https://doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2007.048991

Veileder i biopsibesvarelse av maligne svulster. (2016). (3. utg.). Oslo: Den norske patologforening. Hentet fra http://legeforeningen.no/Global/Fagmedisinske%20foreninger/Den%20norske%20patologforening/Veileder%20i%20besvarelse%20av%20maligne%20svulster%202016%203%20%20utgave.pdf

Venkatramani, V., Panda, A., Manojkumar, R., & Kekre, N. S. (2014). Monopolar versus bipolar transurethral resection of bladder tumors: a single center, parallel arm, randomized, controlled trial. The Journal of urology, 191(6), 1703-1707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2013.12.004

Verma, S., Rajesh, A., Prasad, S. R., Gaitonde, K., Lall, C. G., Mouraviev, V., . . . Sandrasegaran, K. (2012). Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging. Radiographics, 32(2), 371-387. https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.322115125

Veskimae, E., Neuzillet, Y., Rouanne, M., MacLennan, S., Lam, T. B. L., Yuan, Y., . . . Lebret, T. (2017). Systematic review of the oncological and functional outcomes of pelvic organ-preserving radical cystectomy (RC) compared with standard RC in women who undergo curative surgery and orthotopic neobladder substitution for bladder cancer. BJU international, 120(1), 12-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/bju.13819

Vetterlein, M. W., Seisen, T., May, M., Nuhn, P., Gierth, M., Mayr, R., . . . Aziz, A. (2018). Effectiveness of Adjuvant Chemotherapy After Radical Cystectomy for Locally Advanced and/or Pelvic Lymph Node-Positive Muscle-invasive Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder: A Propensity Score-Weighted Competing Risks Analysis. European urology focus, 4(2), 252-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2016.07.001

Vetterlein, M. W., Wankowicz, S. A. M., Seisen, T., Lander, R., Löppenberg, B., Chun, F. K., . . . Preston, M. A. (2017). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer with variant histology. Cancer, 123(22), 4346-4355. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30907

Vogelzang, N. J. (2013). Antiangiogenic agents, chemotherapy, and the treatment of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol, 31(6), 670-675. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.44.4349

von der Maase, H., Hansen, S. W., Roberts, J. T., Dogliotti, L., Oliver, T., Moore, M. J., . . . Conte, P. F. (2000). Gemcitabine and cisplatin versus methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in advanced or metastatic bladder cancer: results of a large, randomized, multinational, multicenter, phase III study. J. Clin. Oncol, 18(17), 3068-3077.

von der Maase, H., Sengelov, L., Roberts, J. T., Ricci, S., Dogliotti, L., Oliver, T., . . . Arning, M. (2005). Long-term survival results of a randomized trial comparing gemcitabine plus cisplatin, with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, plus cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer. J Clin Oncol, 23(21), 4602-4608. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.07.757

Wahlquist, R. (2005). Handlingsprogram for blærecancer: retningslinjer for utredning, behandling og kontroll. [s.l.]: Norsk Urologisk Cancergruppe.

Wallis, C. J., Mahar, A. L., Choo, R., Herschorn, S., Kodama, R. T., Shah, P. S., . . . Nam, R. K. (2016). Second malignancies after radiotherapy for prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 352, i851. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i851

Wang, J. K., Tollefson, M. K., Krambeck, A. E., Trost, L. W., & Thompson, R. H. (2012). High rate of pathologic upgrading at nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Urology, 79(3), 615-619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2011.11.049

Wang, Z., Shang, Y., Luan, T., Duan, Y., Wang, J., Wang, H., & Hao, J. (2020). Evaluation of the value of the VI-RADS scoring system in assessing muscle infiltration by bladder cancer. Cancer Imaging, 20(1), 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40644-020-00304-3

Wasco, M. J., Daignault, S., Zhang, Y., Kunju, L. P., Kinnaman, M., Braun, T., . . . Shah, R. B. (2007). Urothelial carcinoma with divergent histologic differentiation (mixed histologic features) predicts the presence of locally advanced bladder cancer when detected at transurethral resection. Urology, 70(1), 69-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2007.03.033

Weiss, C., Engehausen, D. G., Krause, F. S., Papadopoulos, T., Dunst, J., Sauer, R., & Rodel, C. (2007). Radiochemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil after transurethral surgery in patients with bladder cancer. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 68(4), 1072-1080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.01.054

Wennersten, C., Andersson, G., Boman, K., Nodin, B., Gaber, A., & Jirstrom, K. (2014). Incident urothelial cancer in the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study: cohort characteristics and further validation of ezrin as a prognostic biomarker. Diagnostic pathology, 9(1), 189. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13000-014-0189-5

Widmark, A., Flodgren, P., Damber, J. E., Hellsten, S., & Cavallin-Stahl, E. (2003). A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in urinary bladder cancer. Acta Oncol, 42(5-6), 567-581.

Wiesner, C., Bonfig, R., Stein, R., Gerharz, E. W., Pahernik, S., Riedmiller, H., & Thuroff, J. W. (2006). Continent cutaneous urinary diversion: long-term follow-up of more than 800 patients with ileocecal reservoirs. World J. Urol, 24(3), 315-318.

Wiesner, C., Stein, R., Pahernik, S., Hahn, K., Melchior, S. W., & Thuroff, J. W. (2006). Long-term followup of the intussuscepted ileal nipple and the in situ, submucosally embedded appendix as continence mechanisms of continent urinary diversion with the cutaneous ileocecal pouch (Mainz pouch I). J. Urol, 176(1), 155-159.

Wijkstrom, H., Norming, U., Lagerkvist, M., Nilsson, B., Naslund, I., & Wiklund, P. (1998). Evaluation of clinical staging before cystectomy in transitional cell bladder carcinoma: a long-term follow-up of 276 consecutive patients. Br. J. Urol, 81(5), 686-691.

Willis, D., & Kamat, A. M. (2015). Nonurothelial bladder cancer and rare variant histologies. Hematology/oncology clinics of North America, 29(2), 237-252, viii. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hoc.2014.10.011

Willis, D. L., Fernandez, M. I., Dickstein, R. J., Parikh, S., Shah, J. B., Pisters, L. L., . . . Kamat, A. M. (2015). Clinical outcomes of cT1 micropapillary bladder cancer. The Journal of urology, 193(4), 1129-1134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2014.09.092

Wilson, T. G., Guru, K., Rosen, R. C., Wiklund, P., Annerstedt, M., Bochner, B. H., . . . Catto, J. (2015). Best practices in robot-assisted radical cystectomy and urinary reconstruction: recommendations of the Pasadena Consensus Panel. Eur Urol, 67(3), 363-375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.12.009

Wood, D. N., Allen, S. E., Hussain, M., Greenwell, T. J., & Shah, P. J. (2004). Stomal complications of ileal conduits are significantly higher when formed in women with intractable urinary incontinence. J. Urol, 172(6 Pt 1), 2300-2303.

Yafi, F. A., Tanguay, S., Rendon, R., Jacobsen, N., Fairey, A., Izawa, J., . . . Kassouf, W. (2014). Adjuvant chemotherapy for upper-tract urothelial carcinoma treated with nephroureterectomy: assessment of adequate renal function and influence on outcome. Urologic oncology, 32(1), 31.e17-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2012.11.014

Yamany, T., van Batavia, J., Ahn, J., Shapiro, E., & Gupta, M. (2015). Ureterorenoscopy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: how often are we missing lesions? Urology, 85(2), 311-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2014.08.030

Ye, Z., Hu, J., Song, X., Li, F., Zhao, X., Chen, S., . . . Wang, D. (2015). A comparison of NBI and WLI cystoscopy in detecting non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: A prospective, randomized and multi-center study. Scientific reports, 5, 10905. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep10905

Yin, M., Joshi, M., Meijer, R. P., Glantz, M., Holder, S., Harvey, H. A., . . . Drabick, J. J. (2016). Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Two-Step Meta-Analysis. The oncologist, 21(6), 708-715. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2015-0440

Yuh, B., Wilson, T., Bochner, B., Chan, K., Palou, J., Stenzl, A., . . . Novara, G. (2015). Systematic review and cumulative analysis of oncologic and functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical cystectomy. Eur Urol, 67(3), 402-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.12.008

Zaghloul, M. S., Boutrus, R., El-Hossieny, H., Kader, Y. A., El-Attar, I., & Nazmy, M. (2010). A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of zoledronic acid in bony metastatic bladder cancer. International journal of clinical oncology, 15(4), 382-389. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10147-010-0074-5

Zehnder, P., Studer, U. E., Skinner, E. C., Dorin, R. P., Cai, J., Roth, B., . . . Skinner, D. G. (2011). Super extended versus extended pelvic lymph node dissection in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: a comparative study. J. Urol, 186(4), 1261-1268.

Zheng, C., Lv, Y., Zhong, Q., Wang, R., & Jiang, Q. (2012). Narrow band imaging diagnosis of bladder cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. BJU international, 110(11 Pt B), E680-687. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11500.x

Zieger, K., Wolf, H., Olsen, P. R., & Hojgaard, K. (2000). Long-term follow-up of noninvasive bladder tumours (stage Ta): recurrence and progression. BJU. Int, 85(7), 824-828.

Zietman, A. L., Sacco, D., Skowronski, U., Gomery, P., Kaufman, D. S., Clark, J. A., . . . Shipley, W. U. (2003). Organ conservation in invasive bladder cancer by transurethral resection, chemotherapy and radiation: results of a urodynamic and quality of life study on long-term survivors. The Journal of urology, 170(5), 1772-1776. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000093721.23249.c3

Aass, N., Haugne, D. F., Rosland, J. H., HJordhøy, M., Dønnem, T., & Knudsen, A. K. (2015). Nasjonalt handlingsprogram med retningslinjer for palliasjon i kreftomsorgen (5. utg.). (IS-2285). Oslo: Helsedirektoratet. Hentet fra https://helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/nasjonalt-handlingsprogram-med-retningslinjer-for-palliasjon-i-kreftomsorgen

Sist faglig oppdatert: 04. mai 2021