Du benytter en nettleser vi ikke støtter. Se informasjon om nettlesere

. Referanser

Abdallah, F. W., Chan, V. W., & Brull, R. (2012). Transversus abdominis plane block: a systematic review. Reg Anesth Pain Med, 37(2), 193-209.

Adam, R. (2007). Colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases. Br J Surg, 94(2), 129-131. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.5764

Adam, R., Delvart, V., Pascal, G., Valeanu, A., Castaing, D., Azoulay, D., . . . Bismuth, H. (2004). Rescue surgery for unresectable colorectal liver metastases downstaged by chemotherapy: a model to predict long-term survival. Ann Surg, 240(4), 644-657; discussion 657-648. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.sla.0000141198.92114.f6

Aghayan, D. L., Kazaryan, A. M., Dagenborg, V. J., Røsok, B. I., Fagerland, M. W., Waaler Bjørnelv, G. M., . . . Edwin, B. (2021). Long-Term Oncologic Outcomes After Laparoscopic Versus Open Resection for Colorectal Liver Metastases : A Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med, 174(2), 175-182. https://doi.org/10.7326/m20-4011

Ahlquist, D. A., Wieand, H. S., Moertel, C. G., Mcgill, D. B., Loprinzi, C. L., Oconnell, M. J., . . . Ellefson, R. D. (1993). Accuracy of Fecal Occult Blood Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia - a Prospective-Study Using Hemoccult and Hemoquant Tests. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 269(10), 1262-1267. https://doi.org/DOI 10.1001/jama.269.10.1262

Akasu, T., Kondo, H., Moriya, Y., Sugihara, K., Gotoda, T., Fujita, S., . . . Kakizoe, T. (2000). Endorectal ultrasonography and treatment of early stage rectal cancer. World J Surg, 24(9), 1061-1068. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002680010151

Al-Sukhni, E., Milot, L., Fruitman, M., Beyene, J., Victor, J. C., Schmocker, S., . . . Kennedy, E. (2012). Diagnostic accuracy of MRI for assessment of T category, lymph node metastases, and circumferential resection margin involvement in patients with rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Surg Oncol, 19(7), 2212-2223. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-011-2210-5

Al-Tassan, N., Chmiel, N. H., Maynard, J., Fleming, N., Livingston, A. L., Williams, G. T., . . . Cheadle, J. P. (2002). Inherited variants of MYH associated with somatic G:C-->T:A mutations in colorectal tumors. Nat Genet, 30(2), 227-232. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng828

Al Sahaf, O., Myers, E., Jawad, M., Browne, T. J., Winter, D. C., & Redmond, H. P. (2011). The prognostic significance of extramural deposits and extracapsular lymph node invasion in colon cancer. Dis Colon Rectum, 54(8), 982-988. https://doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0b013e31821c4944

Amado, R. G., Wolf, M., Peeters, M., Van Cutsem, E., Siena, S., Freeman, D. J., . . . Chang, D. D. (2008). Wild-type KRAS is required for panitumumab efficacy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26(10), 1626-1634. https://doi.org/10.1200/Jco.2007.14.7116

Amstutz, U., Henricks, L. M., Offer, S. M., Barbarino, J., Schellens, J. H. M., Swen, J. J., . . . Schwab, M. (2018). Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Genotype and Fluoropyrimidine Dosing: 2017 Update. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 103(2), 210-216. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt.911

Anderin, C., Granath, F., Martling, A., & Holm, T. (2013). Local recurrence after prone vs supine abdominoperineal excision for low rectal cancer. Colorectal Dis, 15(7), 812-815. https://doi.org/10.1111/codi.12148

Andersen, H. K., Lewis, S. J., & Thomas, S. (2006). Early enteral nutrition within 24h of colorectal surgery versus later commencement of feeding for postoperative complications. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4), CD004080. https://doi.org/ARTN CD004080

10.1002/14651858.CD004080.pub2

Andersen, J., Christensen, H., Pachler, J. H., Hallin, M., Thaysen, H. V., & Kehlet, H. (2012). Effect of the laxative magnesium oxide on gastrointestinal functional recovery in fast-track colonic resection: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study. Colorectal Dis, 14(6), 776-782. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2011.02796.x

Andersen, J., Hjort-Jakobsen, D., Christiansen, P. S., & Kehlet, H. (2007). Readmission rates after a planned hospital stay of 2 versus 3 days in fast-track colonic surgery. Br J Surg, 94(7), 890-893. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.5669

Andre, T., Boni, C., Mounedji-Boudiaf, L., Navarro, M., Tabernero, J., Hickish, T., . . . Investigators, M. (2004). Oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin as adjuvant treatment for colon cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 350(23), 2343-2351. https://doi.org/DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa032709

André, T., de Gramont, A., Vernerey, D., Chibaudel, B., Bonnetain, F., Tijeras-Raballand, A., . . . de Gramont, A. (2015). Adjuvant Fluorouracil, Leucovorin, and Oxaliplatin in Stage II to III Colon Cancer: Updated 10-Year Survival and Outcomes According to BRAF Mutation and Mismatch Repair Status of the MOSAIC Study. J Clin Oncol, 33(35), 4176-4187. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2015.63.4238

André, T., Shiu, K. K., Kim, T. W., Jensen, B. V., Jensen, L. H., Punt, C., . . . Diaz, L. A., Jr. (2020). Pembrolizumab in Microsatellite-Instability-High Advanced Colorectal Cancer. N Engl J Med, 383(23), 2207-2218. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2017699

Andre, T., Tournigand, C., Mineur, L., Fellague-Chebra, R., Flesch, M., Mabro, M., . . . de Gramont, A. (2007). Phase II study of an optimized 5-fluorouracil-oxaliplatin strategy (OPTIMOX2) with celecoxib in metastatic colorectal cancer: a GERCOR study. Ann Oncol, 18(1), 77-81. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdl336

Angelsen, J. H., Horn, A., Sorbye, H., Eide, G. E., Løes, I. M., & Viste, A. (2017). Population-based study on resection rates and survival in patients with colorectal liver metastasis in Norway. Br J Surg, 104(5), 580-589. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.10457

Araghi, M., Soerjomataram, I., Bardot, A., Ferlay, J., Cabasag, C. J., Morrison, D. S., . . . Arnold, M. (2019). Changes in colorectal cancer incidence in seven high-income countries: a population-based study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 4(7), 511-518. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2468-1253(19)30147-5

Aretz, S., Uhlhaas, S., Caspari, R., Mangold, E., Pagenstecher, C., Propping, P., & Friedl, W. (2004). Frequency and parental origin of de novo APC mutations in familial adenomatous polyposis. Eur J Hum Genet, 12(1), 52-58. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201088

Atkin, W., Brenner, A., Martin, J., Wooldrage, K., Shah, U., Lucas, F., . . . Duffy, S. W. (2017). The clinical effectiveness of different surveillance strategies to prevent colorectal cancer in people with intermediate-grade colorectal adenomas: a retrospective cohort analysis, and psychological and economic evaluations. Health Technol Assess, 21(25), 1-536. https://doi.org/10.3310/hta21250

Atkin, W., Dadswell, E., Wooldrage, K., Kralj-Hans, I., von Wagner, C., Edwards, R., . . . Halligan, S. (2013). Computed tomographic colonography versus colonoscopy for investigation of patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer (SIGGAR): a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet, 381(9873), 1194-1202. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(12)62186-2

Atkin, W., Wooldrage, K., Brenner, A., Martin, J., Shah, U., Perera, S., . . . Cross, A. J. (2017). Adenoma surveillance and colorectal cancer incidence: a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study. Lancet Oncol, 18(6), 823-834. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(17)30187-0

Audisio, R. A., & Papamichael, D. (2012). Treatment of colorectal cancer in older patients. Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 9(12), 716-725. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2012.196

Avital, I., & DeMatteo, R. (2006). Combined resection of liver and lung metastases for colorectal cancer. Thorac Surg Clin, 16(2), 145-155, vi. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.thorsurg.2005.12.002

Aziz, O., Athanasiou, T., Fazio, V. W., Nicholls, R. J., Darzi, A. W., Church, J., . . . Tekkis, P. P. (2006). Meta-analysis of observational studies of ileorectal versus ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis. Br J Surg, 93(4), 407-417. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.5276

Baglietto, L., Jenkins, M. A., Severi, G., Giles, G. G., Bishop, D. T., Boyle, P., & Hopper, J. L. (2006). Measures of familial aggregation depend on definition of family history: meta-analysis for colorectal cancer. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 59(2), 114-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2005.07.018

Bahadoer, R. R., Dijkstra, E. A., van Etten, B., Marijnen, C. A. M., Putter, H., Kranenbarg, E. M., . . . Hospers, G. A. P. (2021). Short-course radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy before total mesorectal excision (TME) versus preoperative chemoradiotherapy, TME, and optional adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer (RAPIDO): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol, 22(1), 29-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(20)30555-6

Balaguer, F., Castellvi-Bel, S., Castells, A., Andreu, M., Munoz, J., Gisbert, J. P., . . . Gastrointestinal Oncology Group of the Spanish Gastroenterological, A. (2007). Identification of MYH mutation carriers in colorectal cancer: a multicenter, case-control, population-based study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 5(3), 379-387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2006.12.025

Barlow, A. D., Nakas, A., Pattenden, C., Martin-Ucar, A. E., Dennison, A. R., Berry, D. P., . . . Waller, D. A. (2009). Surgical treatment of combined hepatic and pulmonary colorectal cancer metastases. Eur J Surg Oncol, 35(3), 307-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2008.06.012

Basse, L., Hjort Jakobsen, D., Billesbolle, P., Werner, M., & Kehlet, H. (2000). A clinical pathway to accelerate recovery after colonic resection. Ann Surg, 232(1), 51-57. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000658-200007000-00008

Basse, L., Madsen, J. L., Billesbølle, P., Bardram, L., & Kehlet, H. (2003). Gastrointestinal transit after laparoscopic versus open colonic resection. Surg Endosc, 17(12), 1919-1922. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-003-9013-0

Basse, L., Madsen, J. L., & Kehlet, H. (2001). Normal gastrointestinal transit after colonic resection using epidural analgesia, enforced oral nutrition and laxative. British Journal of Surgery, 88(11), 1498-1500. https://doi.org/DOI 10.1046/j.0007-1323.2001.01916.x

Bateman, A. C., Jaynes, E., & Bateman, A. R. (2009). Rectal cancer staging post neoadjuvant therapy--how should the changes be assessed? Histopathology, 54(6), 713-721.

Beattie, A. H., Prach, A. T., Baxter, J. P., & Pennington, C. R. (2000). A randomised controlled trial evaluating the use of enteral nutritional supplements postoperatively in malnourished surgical patients. Gut, 46(6), 813-818. https://doi.org/DOI 10.1136/gut.46.6.813

Beaugerie, L., Svrcek, M., Seksik, P., Bouvier, A. M., Simon, T., Allez, M., . . . Carrat, F. (2013). Risk of colorectal high-grade dysplasia and cancer in a prospective observational cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology, 145(1), 166-175.e168. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2013.03.044

Beets-Tan, R. G., Beets, G. L., Vliegen, R. F., Kessels, A. G., Van Boven, H., De Bruine, A., . . . van Engelshoven, J. M. (2001). Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in prediction of tumour-free resection margin in rectal cancer surgery. Lancet, 357(9255), 497-504. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(00)04040-x

Beets-Tan, R. G. H., Lambregts, D. M. J., Maas, M., Bipat, S., Barbaro, B., Curvo-Semedo, L., . . . Blomqvist, L. (2018). Magnetic resonance imaging for clinical management of rectal cancer: Updated recommendations from the 2016 European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) consensus meeting. Eur Radiol, 28(4), 1465-1475. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-017-5026-2

Beggs, A. D., Latchford, A. R., Vasen, H. F., Moslein, G., Alonso, A., Aretz, S., . . . Hodgson, S. V. (2010). Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a systematic review and recommendations for management. Gut, 59(7), 975-986. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2009.198499

Belderbos, T. D., Leenders, M., Moons, L. M., & Siersema, P. D. (2014). Local recurrence after endoscopic mucosal resection of nonpedunculated colorectal lesions: systematic review and meta-analysis. Endoscopy, 46(5), 388-402. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1364970

Benitez Majano, S., Di Girolamo, C., Rachet, B., Maringe, C., Guren, M. G., Glimelius, B., . . . Walters, S. (2019). Surgical treatment and survival from colorectal cancer in Denmark, England, Norway, and Sweden: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol, 20(1), 74-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(18)30646-6

Bentzen, S. M., Balslev, I., Pedersen, M., Teglbjaerg, P. S., Hanberg-Sorensen, F., Bone, J., . . . et al. (1992). Time to loco-regional recurrence after resection of Dukes' B and C colorectal cancer with or without adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy. A multivariate regression analysis. Br J Cancer, 65(1), 102-107. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1992.19

Berger, A. C., Sigurdson, E. R., LeVoyer, T., Hanlon, A., Mayer, R. J., Macdonald, J. S., . . . Haller, D. G. (2005). Colon cancer survival is associated with decreasing ratio of metastatic to examined lymph nodes. J Clin Oncol, 23(34), 8706-8712.

Berglund, A., Cedermark, B., & Glimelius, B. (2008). Is it deleterious to delay the start of adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer stage III? Ann Oncol, 19(2), 400-402. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdm582

Bergqvist, D., Agnelli, G., Cohen, A. T., Eldor, A., Nilsson, P. E., Le Moigne-Amrani, A., . . . Investigators, E. I. (2002). Duration of prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism with enoxaparin after surgery for cancer. N Engl J Med, 346(13), 975-980. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa012385

Bergqvist, D., Lindblad, B., & Matzsch, T. (1993). Risk of combining low molecular weight heparin for thromboprophylaxis and epidural or spinal anesthesia. Semin Thromb Hemost, 19 Suppl 1(Suppl 1), 147-151.

Bernstein, C. N., Blanchard, J. F., Kliewer, E., & Wajda, A. (2001). Cancer risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study. Cancer, 91(4), 854-862. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(20010215)91:4<854::aid-cncr1073>3.0.co;2-z

Bernstein, T. E., Endreseth, B. H., Romundstad, P., & Wibe, A. (2012). Improved local control of rectal cancer reduces distant metastases. Colorectal Dis, 14(10), e668-678. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2012.03089.x

Bernstein, T. E., Endreseth, B. H., Romundstad, P., Wibe, A., & Grp, N. C. C. (2009). Circumferential resection margin as a prognostic factor in rectal cancer. British Journal of Surgery, 96(11), 1348-1357. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.6739

Bertagnolli, M. M., Niedzwiecki, D., Compton, C. C., Hahn, H. P., Hall, M., Damas, B., . . . Redston, M. (2009). Microsatellite instability predicts improved response to adjuvant therapy with irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin in stage III colon cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocol 89803. J Clin Oncol, 27(11), 1814-1821. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.18.2071

Betge, J., Pollheimer, M. J., Lindtner, R. A., Kornprat, P., Schlemmer, A., Rehak, P., . . . Langner, C. (2012). Intramural and extramural vascular invasion in colorectal cancer: prognostic significance and quality of pathology reporting. Cancer, 118(3), 628-638. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26310

Biagi, J. J., Raphael, M. J., Mackillop, W. J., Kong, W. D., King, W. D., & Booth, C. M. (2011). Association Between Time to Initiation of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Survival in Colorectal Cancer A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 305(22), 2335-2342. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.749

Bipat, S., Glas, A. S., Slors, F. J., Zwinderman, A. H., Bossuyt, P. M., & Stoker, J. (2004). Rectal cancer: local staging and assessment of lymph node involvement with endoluminal US, CT, and MR imaging--a meta-analysis. Radiology, 232(3), 773-783. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2323031368

Birgisson, H., Pahlman, L., Gunnarsson, U., & Glimelius, B. (2007). Late adverse effects of radiation therapy for rectal cancer - a systematic overview. Acta Oncol, 46(4), 504-516. https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860701348670

Bjerkeset, T., Morild, I., Mork, S., & Soreide, O. (1987). Tumor Characteristics in Colorectal-Cancer and Their Relationship to Treatment and Prognosis. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 30(12), 934-938. https://doi.org/Doi 10.1007/Bf02554279

Bjerregaard, N. C., Tottrup, A., Sorensen, H. T., & Laurberg, S. (2007). Diagnostic value of self-reported symptoms in Danish outpatients referred with symptoms consistent with colorectal cancer. Colorectal Dis, 9(5), 443-451. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2006.01170.x

Bjugn, R., & Dirdal, H. U. (2001). Kolorektalcancer--erfaringer med bruk av maler for rapportering av patologisk-anatomiske data. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen, 121(14), 1697-1701.

Blackmon, S. H., Stephens, E. H., Correa, A. M., Hofstetter, W., Kim, M. P., Mehran, R. J., . . . Vaporciyan, A. A. (2012). Predictors of recurrent pulmonary metastases and survival after pulmonary metastasectomy for colorectal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg, 94(6), 1802-1809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.07.014

Bleijenberg, A. G., JE, I. J., van Herwaarden, Y. J., Carballal, S., Pellisé, M., Jung, G., . . . Dekker, E. (2020). Personalised surveillance for serrated polyposis syndrome: results from a prospective 5-year international cohort study. Gut, 69(1), 112-121. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2018-318134

Block, B. M., Liu, S. S., Rowlingson, A. J., Cowan, A. R., Cowan, J. A., Jr., & Wu, C. L. (2003). Efficacy of postoperative epidural analgesia: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 290(18), 2455-2463. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.290.18.2455

Bloom, S., & Webster, G. D. (2006). Oxford handbook of gastroenterology and hepatology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bokemeyer, C., Bondarenko, I., Hartmann, J. T., de Braud, F., Schuch, G., Zubel, A., . . . Koralewski, P. (2011). Efficacy according to biomarker status of cetuximab plus FOLFOX-4 as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: the OPUS study. Annals of Oncology, 22(7), 1535-1546. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdq632

Bonadona, V., Bonaïti, B., Olschwang, S., Grandjouan, S., Huiart, L., Longy, M., . . . Bonaiti-Pellie, C. (2011). Cancer risks associated with germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 genes in Lynch syndrome. JAMA, 305(22), 2304-2310. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.743

Bonanni, L., De'liguori Carino, N., Deshpande, R., Ammori, B. J., Sherlock, D. J., Valle, J. W., . . . O'Reilly, D. A. (2014). A comparison of diagnostic imaging modalities for colorectal liver metastases. Eur J Surg Oncol, 40(5), 545-550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2013.12.023

Bonjer, H. J., Deijen, C. L., Abis, G. A., Cuesta, M. A., van der Pas, M. H., de Lange-de Klerk, E. S., . . . Group, C. I. S. (2015). A randomized trial of laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer. N Engl J Med, 372(14), 1324-1332. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1414882

Boparai, K. S., Mathus-Vliegen, E. M., Koornstra, J. J., Nagengast, F. M., van Leerdam, M., van Noesel, C. J., . . . Dekker, E. (2010). Increased colorectal cancer risk during follow-up in patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome: a multicentre cohort study. Gut, 59(8), 1094-1100. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2009.185884

Borgelt, B. B., Gelber, R., Brady, L. W., Griffin, T., & Hendrickson, F. R. (1981). The palliation of hepatic metastases: results of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group pilot study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 7(5), 587-591. https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-3016(81)90370-9

Borschitz, T., Heintz, A., & Junginger, T. (2006). The influence of histopathologic criteria on the long-term prognosis of locally excised pT1 rectal carcinomas: results of local excision (transanal endoscopic microsurgery) and immediate reoperation. Dis Colon Rectum, 49(10), 1492-1506; discussion 1500-1495. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10350-006-0587-1

Borstlap, W. A. A., Westerduin, E., Aukema, T. S., Bemelman, W. A., & Tanis, P. J. (2017). Anastomotic Leakage and Chronic Presacral Sinus Formation After Low Anterior Resection: Results From a Large Cross-sectional Study. Ann Surg, 266(5), 870-877. https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000002429

Bosset, J. F., Calais, G., Mineur, L., Maingon, P., Stojanovic-Rundic, S., Bensadoun, R. J., . . . Collette, L. (2014). Fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer: long-term results of the EORTC 22921 randomised study. Lancet Oncol, 15(2), 184-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(13)70599-0

Bostel, T., Förster, R., Schlampp, I., Sprave, T., Bruckner, T., Nicolay, N. H., . . . Rief, H. (2017). Spinal bone metastases in colorectal cancer: a retrospective analysis of stability, prognostic factors and survival after palliative radiotherapy. Radiat Oncol, 12(1), 115. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13014-017-0852-6

Brackmann, S., Andersen, S. N., Aamodt, G., Langmark, F., Clausen, O. P., Aadland, E., . . . Vatn, M. H. (2009). Relationship between clinical parameters and the colitis-colorectal cancer interval in a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol, 44(1), 46-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/00365520801977568

Brady, M., Kinn, S., & Stuart, P. (2003). Preoperative fasting for adults to prevent perioperative complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (4), CD004423. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004423

Braendengen, M., Tveit, K. M., Berglund, A., Birkemeyer, E., Frykholm, G., Pahlman, L., . . . Glimelius, B. (2008). Randomized phase III study comparing preoperative radiotherapy with chemoradiotherapy in nonresectable rectal cancer. J Clin Oncol, 26(22), 3687-3694. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.15.3858

Braendengen, M., Tveit, K. M., Bruheim, K., Cvancarova, M., Berglund, A., & Glimelius, B. (2011). Late patient-reported toxicity after preoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy in nonresectable rectal cancer: results from a randomized Phase III study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 81(4), 1017-1024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.07.007

Brandstrup, B., Tonnesen, H., Beier-Holgersen, R., Hjortso, E., Ording, H., Lindorff-Larsen, K., . . . Danish Study Group on Perioperative Fluid, T. (2003). Effects of intravenous fluid restriction on postoperative complications: comparison of two perioperative fluid regimens: a randomized assessor-blinded multicenter trial. Ann Surg, 238(5), 641-648. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.sla.0000094387.50865.23

Bratzler, D. W., Houck, P. M., Surgical Infection Prevention Guidelines Writers, W., American Academy of Orthopaedic, S., American Association of Critical Care, N., American Association of Nurse, A., . . . Surgical Infection, S. (2004). Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Clin Infect Dis, 38(12), 1706-1715. https://doi.org/10.1086/421095

Bregendahl, S., Emmertsen, K. J., Lindegaard, J. C., & Laurberg, S. (2015). Urinary and sexual dysfunction in women after resection with and without preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: a population-based cross-sectional study. Colorectal Dis, 17(1), 26-37. https://doi.org/10.1111/codi.12758

Bregendahl, S., Emmertsen, K. J., Lous, J., & Laurberg, S. (2013). Bowel dysfunction after low anterior resection with and without neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer: a population-based cross-sectional study. Colorectal Dis, 15(9), 1130-1139. https://doi.org/10.1111/codi.12244

Breitenstein, S., Rickenbacher, A., Berdajs, D., Puhan, M., Clavien, P. A., & Demartines, N. (2007). Systematic evaluation of surgical strategies for acute malignant left-sided colonic obstruction. Br J Surg, 94(12), 1451-1460. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.6007

Bretthauer, M., Kaminski, M. F., Løberg, M., Zauber, A. G., Regula, J., Kuipers, E. J., . . . Adami, H. O. (2016). Population-Based Colonoscopy Screening for Colorectal Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med, 176(7), 894-902. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.0960

Breugom, A. J., Swets, M., Bosset, J. F., Collette, L., Sainato, A., Cionini, L., . . . van de Velde, C. J. (2015). Adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and surgery for patients with rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Oncol, 16(2), 200-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(14)71199-4

Brown, C. J., Fenech, D. S., & McLeod, R. S. (2008). Reconstructive techniques after rectal resection for rectal cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2), CD006040. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006040.pub2

Brown, G., Richards, C. J., Bourne, M. W., Newcombe, R. G., Radcliffe, A. G., Dallimore, N. S., & Williams, G. T. (2003). Morphologic predictors of lymph node status in rectal cancer with use of high-spatial-resolution MR imaging with histopathologic comparison. Radiology, 227(2), 371-377. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2272011747

Brudvik, K. W., Bains, S. J., Seeberg, L. T., Labori, K. J., Waage, A., Taskén, K., . . . Bjornbeth, B. A. (2013). Aggressive treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer increases survival: a scandinavian single-center experience. HPB Surg, 2013, 727095. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/727095

Bruheim, K., Guren, M. G., Skovlund, E., Hjermstad, M. J., Dahl, O., Frykholm, G., . . . Tveit, K. M. (2010). Late side effects and quality of life after radiotherapy for rectal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 76(4), 1005-1011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.03.010

Brulé, S. Y., Jonker, D. J., Karapetis, C. S., O'Callaghan, C. J., Moore, M. J., Wong, R., . . . Goodwin, R. A. (2015). Location of colon cancer (right-sided versus left-sided) as a prognostic factor and a predictor of benefit from cetuximab in NCIC CO.17. Eur J Cancer, 51(11), 1405-1414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2015.03.015

Buecher, B., Cacheux, W., Rouleau, E., Dieumegard, B., Mitry, E., & Lievre, A. (2013). Role of microsatellite instability in the management of colorectal cancers. Dig Liver Dis, 45(6), 441-449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2012.10.006

Bujko, K., Wyrwicz, L., Rutkowski, A., Malinowska, M., Pietrzak, L., Kryński, J., . . . Wydmanski, J. (2016). Long-course oxaliplatin-based preoperative chemoradiation versus 5 x 5 Gy and consolidation chemotherapy for cT4 or fixed cT3 rectal cancer: results of a randomized phase III study. Ann Oncol, 27(5), 834-842. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdw062

Bulow, S. (2003). Results of national registration of familial adenomatous polyposis. Gut, 52(5), 742-746. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.52.5.742

Burling, D., & International Collaboration for, C. T. c. S. (2010). CT colonography standards. Clin Radiol, 65(6), 474-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2009.12.003

Burn, J., Gerdes, A. M., Macrae, F., Mecklin, J. P., Moeslein, G., Olschwang, S., . . . Bishop, D. T. (2011). Long-term effect of aspirin on cancer risk in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer: an analysis from the CAPP2 randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 378(9809), 2081-2087. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(11)61049-0

Burton, S., Brown, G., Daniels, I. R., Norman, A. R., Mason, B., & Cunningham, D. (2006). MRI directed multidisciplinary team preoperative treatment strategy: the way to eliminate positive circumferential margins? Br J Cancer, 94(3), 351-357. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6602947

Böckelman, C., Engelmann, B. E., Kaprio, T., Hansen, T. F., & Glimelius, B. (2015). Risk of recurrence in patients with colon cancer stage II and III: a systematic review and meta-analysis of recent literature. Acta Oncol, 54(1), 5-16. https://doi.org/10.3109/0284186x.2014.975839

Baatrup, G., Endreseth, B. H., Isaksen, V., Kjellmo, A., Tveit, K. M., & Nesbakken, A. (2009). Preoperative staging and treatment options in T1 rectal adenocarcinoma. Acta Oncol, 48(3), 328-342. https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860802657243

Cairns, S. R., Scholefield, J. H., Steele, R. J., Dunlop, M. G., Thomas, H. J., Evans, G. D., . . . Woodhouse, C. R. (2010). Guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and surveillance in moderate and high risk groups (update from 2002). Gut, 59(5), 666-689. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2009.179804

Calderwood, A. H., Lasser, K. E., & Roy, H. K. (2016). Colon adenoma features and their impact on risk of future advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer. World journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 8(12), 826-834. https://doi.org/10.4251/wjgo.v8.i12.826

Cameron, M. G., Kersten, C., Vistad, I., Fossa, S., & Guren, M. G. (2014). Palliative pelvic radiotherapy of symptomatic incurable rectal cancer - a systematic review. Acta Oncol, 53(2), 164-173. https://doi.org/10.3109/0284186x.2013.837582

Cameron, M. G., Kersten, C., Vistad, I., van Helvoirt, R., Weyde, K., Undseth, C., . . . Guren, M. G. (2016). Palliative pelvic radiotherapy for symptomatic rectal cancer - a prospective multicenter study. Acta Oncol, 55(12), 1400-1407. https://doi.org/10.1080/0284186x.2016.1191666

Cancer in Norway 2018: cancer incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence in Norway. (2019). Oslo: Cancer Registry of Norway. Hentet fra https://www.kreftregisteret.no/globalassets/cancer-in-norway/2018/cin2018.pdf

Cancer in Norway 2020: cancer incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence in Norway. (2021). Oslo: Cancer Registry of Norway. Hentet fra https://www.kreftregisteret.no/globalassets/cancer-in-norway/2020/cin-2020.pdf

Carballal, S., Rodríguez-Alcalde, D., Moreira, L., Hernández, L., Rodriguez, L., Rodriguez-Moranta, F., . . . Balaguer, F. (2016). Colorectal cancer risk factors in patients with serrated polyposis syndrome: a large multicentre study. Gut, 65(11), 1829-1837. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309647

Cartwright, T. H. (2012). Treatment decisions after diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer, 11(3), 155-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clcc.2011.11.001

Cassidy, J., Clarke, S., Diaz-Rubio, E., Scheithauer, W., Figer, A., Wong, R., . . . Saltz, L. (2008). Randomized phase III study of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin compared with fluorouracil/folinic acid plus oxaliplatin as first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26(12), 2006-2012. https://doi.org/10.1200/Jco.2007.14.9898

Ceelen, W., Fierens, K., Van Nieuwenhove, Y., & Pattyn, P. (2009). Preoperative chemoradiation versus radiation alone for stage II and III resectable rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer, 124(12), 2966-2972. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.24247

Ceelen, W. P., Van Nieuwenhove, Y., & Fierens, K. (2009). Preoperative chemoradiation versus radiation alone for stage II and III resectable rectal cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (1), CD006041.

Cepeda, M. S., Carr, D. B., Miranda, N., Diaz, A., Silva, C., & Morales, O. (2005). Comparison of morphine, ketorolac, and their combination for postoperative pain: results from a large, randomized, double-blind trial. Anesthesiology, 103(6), 1225-1232.

Chand, M., Siddiqui, M. R., Swift, I., & Brown, G. (2016). Systematic review of prognostic importance of extramural venous invasion in rectal cancer. World J Gastroenterol, 22(4), 1721-1726. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v22.i4.1721

Chau, I., Brown, G., Cunningham, D., Tait, D., Wotherspoon, A., Norman, A. R., . . . Oates, J. (2006). Neoadjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin followed by synchronous chemoradiation and total mesorectal excision in magnetic resonance imaging-defined poor-risk rectal cancer. J Clin Oncol, 24(4), 668-674. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.04.4875

Cheng, H., Deng, Z., Wang, Z. J., Zhang, W., & Su, J. T. (2011). Lateral lymph node dissection with radical surgery versus single radical surgery for rectal cancer: a meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12(10), 2517-2521.

Chibaudel, B., Maindrault-Goebel, F., Lledo, G., Mineur, L., Andre, T., Bennamoun, M., . . . de Gramont, A. (2009). Can chemotherapy be discontinued in unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer? The GERCOR OPTIMOX2 Study. J Clin Oncol, 27(34), 5727-5733.

Choi, J. Y., Jung, S. A., Shim, K. N., Cho, W. Y., Keum, B., Byeon, J. S., . . . Kong, K. A. (2015). Meta-analysis of predictive clinicopathologic factors for lymph node metastasis in patients with early colorectal carcinoma. J Korean Med Sci, 30(4), 398-406. https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2015.30.4.398

Chow, E., van der Linden, Y. M., Roos, D., Hartsell, W. F., Hoskin, P., Wu, J. S., . . . Wong, R. K. (2014). Single versus multiple fractions of repeat radiation for painful bone metastases: a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Oncol, 15(2), 164-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(13)70556-4

Chow, E., Zeng, L., Salvo, N., Dennis, K., Tsao, M., & Lutz, S. (2012). Update on the systematic review of palliative radiotherapy trials for bone metastases. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol), 24(2), 112-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2011.11.004

Chua, T. C., & Morris, D. L. (2012). Therapeutic potential of surgery for metastatic colorectal cancer. Scand J Gastroenterol, 47(3), 258-268. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2012.640823

Church, D. N., Midgley, R., & Kerr, D. J. (2013). Stage II colon cancer. Chinese clinical oncology, 2(2), 16. https://doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2304-3865.2013.03.03

Cirocchi, R., Trastulli, S., Abraha, I., Vettoretto, N., Boselli, C., Montedori, A., . . . Platell, C. (2012). Non-resection versus resection for an asymptomatic primary tumour in patients with unresectable stage IV colorectal cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 8(8), CD008997. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008997.pub2

Ciseł, B., Pietrzak, L., Michalski, W., Wyrwicz, L., Rutkowski, A., Kosakowska, E., . . . Bujko, K. (2019). Long-course preoperative chemoradiation versus 5 × 5 Gy and consolidation chemotherapy for clinical T4 and fixed clinical T3 rectal cancer: long-term results of the randomized Polish II study. Ann Oncol, 30(8), 1298-1303. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdz186

Click, B., Pinsky, P. F., Hickey, T., Doroudi, M., & Schoen, R. E. (2018). Association of Colonoscopy Adenoma Findings With Long-term Colorectal Cancer Incidence. JAMA, 319(19), 2021-2031. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.5809

Coleman, H. G., Loughrey, M. B., Murray, L. J., Johnston, B. T., Gavin, A. T., Shrubsole, M. J., . . . Cantwell, M. M. (2015). Colorectal Cancer Risk Following Adenoma Removal: A Large Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 24(9), 1373-1380. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.Epi-15-0085

Colle, R., Radzik, A., Cohen, R., Pellat, A., Lopez-Tabada, D., Cachanado, M., . . . André, T. (2021). Pseudoprogression in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors for microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer, 144, 9-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.11.009

Colon Cancer Laparoscopic or Open Resection Study Group, Buunen, M., Veldkamp, R., Hop, W. C., Kuhry, E., Jeekel, J., . . . Bonjer, H. J. (2009). Survival after laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for colon cancer: long-term outcome of a randomised clinical trial. Lancet Oncol, 10(1), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(08)70310-3

Conroy, T., Bosset, J. F., Etienne, P. L., Rio, E., François, É., Mesgouez-Nebout, N., . . . Borg, C. (2021). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (UNICANCER-PRODIGE 23): a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol, 22(5), 702-715. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(21)00079-6

Corley, D. A., Levin, T. R., & Doubeni, C. A. (2014). Adenoma detection rate and risk of colorectal cancer and death. N Engl J Med, 370(26), 2541. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1405329

Corrin, B., & Nicholson, A. G. (2006). Pathology of the lungs. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone.

Cottet, V., Jooste, V., Fournel, I., Bouvier, A. M., Faivre, J., & Bonithon-Kopp, C. (2012). Long-term risk of colorectal cancer after adenoma removal: a population-based cohort study. Gut, 61(8), 1180-1186. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2011-300295

Cremolini, C., Loupakis, F., Masi, G., Lonardi, S., Granetto, C., Mancini, M. L., . . . Falcone, A. (2016). FOLFOXIRI or FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab as first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: a propensity score-adjusted analysis from two randomized clinical trials. Ann Oncol, 27(5), 843-849. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdw052

Crockett, S. D., & Nagtegaal, I. D. (2019). Terminology, Molecular Features, Epidemiology, and Management of Serrated Colorectal Neoplasia. Gastroenterology, 157(4), 949-966.e944. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.06.041

Croner, R. S., Merkel, S., Papadopoulos, T., Schellerer, V., Hohenberger, W., & Goehl, J. (2009). Multivisceral resection for colon carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum, 52(8), 1381-1386. https://doi.org/10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181ab580b

Cross, A. J., Robbins, E. C., Pack, K., Stenson, I., Kirby, P. L., Patel, B., . . . Wooldrage, K. (2020). Long-term colorectal cancer incidence after adenoma removal and the effects of surveillance on incidence: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study. Gut, 69(9), 1645-1658. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-320036

Cunningham, D., Lang, I., Marcuello, E., Lorusso, V., Ocvirk, J., Shin, D. B., . . . Saunders, M. P. (2013). Bevacizumab plus capecitabine versus capecitabine alone in elderly patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (AVEX): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol, 14(11), 1077-1085. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(13)70154-2

Dahl, O. (2007). Adjuvant kjemoterapi ved tykktarmskreft. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen, 127(23), 3094-3096.

Dahl, O., Horn, A., Morild, I., Halvorsen, J. F., Odland, G., Reinertsen, S., . . . Thunold, J. (1990). Low-dose preoperative radiation postpones recurrences in operable rectal cancer. Results of a randomized multicenter trial in western Norway. Cancer, 66(11), 2286-2294. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19901201)66:11<2286::aid-cncr2820661106>3.0.co;2-t

Danielsen, A. K., Park, J., Jansen, J. E., Bock, D., Skullman, S., Wedin, A., . . . Rosenberg, J. (2017). Early Closure of a Temporary Ileostomy in Patients With Rectal Cancer: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. Ann Surg, 265(2), 284-290. https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000001829

Danish Colorectal Cancer Group. (2010). Retningslinier for diagnostik og behandling af kolorektal cancer: Kirurgisk behandling af cancer recti. [nettdokument]. København: Dansk kirurgisk selskab. Hentet 31.05.2013, fra http://www.dccg.dk/retningslinjer/indeks.html

Danske Multidisciplinære Cancer Grupper, & Regionernes Kliniske Kvalitetsudviklingsprogram. (2019). Arvelig tarmkræft. København: DCCG.dk. Hentet fra https://dccg.dk/retningslinjer/kolorektal-cancer/

Das, P., Delclos, M. E., Skibber, J. M., Rodriguez-Bigas, M. A., Feig, B. W., Chang, G. J., . . . Crane, C. H. (2010). Hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy for rectal cancer in patients with prior pelvic irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 77(1), 60-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.056

de Gramont, A., Buyse, M., Abrahantes, J. C., Burzykowski, T., Quinaux, E., Cervantes, A., . . . Tournigand, C. (2007). Reintroduction of oxaliplatin is associated with improved survival in advanced colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol, 25(22), 3224-3229.

de Gramont, A., Figer, A., Seymour, M., Homerin, M., Hmissi, A., Cassidy, J., . . . Bonetti, A. (2000). Leucovorin and fluorouracil with or without oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol, 18(16), 2938-2947.

De Jong, A. E., Morreau, H., Van Puijenbroek, M., Eilers, P. H., Wijnen, J., Nagengast, F. M., . . . Vasen, H. F. (2004). The role of mismatch repair gene defects in the development of adenomas in patients with HNPCC. Gastroenterology, 126(1), 42-48. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2003.10.043

de Wijkerslooth, T. R., de Haan, M. C., Stoop, E. M., Bossuyt, P. M., Thomeer, M., Essink-Bot, M. L., . . . Dekker, E. (2012). Burden of colonoscopy compared to non-cathartic CT-colonography in a colorectal cancer screening programme: randomised controlled trial. Gut, 61(11), 1552-1559. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301308

De Witte, J. L., Demeyer, C., & Vandemaele, E. (2010). Resistive-heating or forced-air warming for the prevention of redistribution hypothermia. Anesth Analg, 110(3), 829-833. https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181cb3ebf

Deenen, M. J., Meulendijks, D., Cats, A., Sechterberger, M. K., Severens, J. L., Boot, H., . . . Schellens, J. H. (2016). Upfront Genotyping of DPYD*2A to Individualize Fluoropyrimidine Therapy: A Safety and Cost Analysis. J Clin Oncol, 34(3), 227-234. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2015.63.1325

Denost, Q., Rouanet, P., Faucheron, J. L., Panis, Y., Meunier, B., Cotte, E., . . . Laurent, C. (2017). To Drain or Not to Drain Infraperitoneal Anastomosis After Rectal Excision for Cancer: The GRECCAR 5 Randomized Trial. Ann Surg, 265(3), 474-480. https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000001991

Derbyshire, E., Hungin, P., Nickerson, C., & Rutter, M. D. (2017). Post-polypectomy bleeding in the English National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme. Endoscopy, 49(9), 899-908. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-113442

Des Guetz, G., Nicolas, P., Perret, G. Y., Morere, J. F., & Uzzan, B. (2010). Does delaying adjuvant chemotherapy after curative surgery for colorectal cancer impair survival? A meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer, 46(6), 1049-1055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2010.01.020

Des Guetz, G., Uzzan, B., Morere, J. F., Perret, G., & Nicolas, P. (2010). Duration of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (1), CD007046. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007046.pub2

Dewhurst, C., Rosen, M. P., Blake, M. A., Baker, M. E., Cash, B. D., Fidler, J. L., . . . Yee, J. (2012). ACR Appropriateness Criteria pretreatment staging of colorectal cancer. J Am Coll Radiol, 9(11), 775-781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2012.07.025

Diana, M., & Marescaux, J. (2015). Robotic surgery. Br J Surg, 102(2), e15-28. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.9711

Dienstmann, R., Salazar, R., & Tabernero, J. (2015). Personalizing colon cancer adjuvant therapy: selecting optimal treatments for individual patients. J Clin Oncol, 33(16), 1787-1796. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2014.60.0213

Dietrich, C. F., Kratzer, W., Strobe, D., Danse, E., Fessl, R., Bunk, A., . . . Greis, C. (2006). Assessment of metastatic liver disease in patients with primary extrahepatic tumors by contrast-enhanced sonography versus CT and MRI. World J Gastroenterol, 12(11), 1699-1705. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v12.i11.1699

Digestive System Tumours. (2019). (5 utg.). (WHO Classification of Tumours, Volume 1). Lyon: International Agency for Reasearch on Cancer.

Dighe, S., Blake, H., Koh, M. D., Swift, I., Arnaout, A., Temple, L., . . . Brown, G. (2010). Accuracy of multidetector computed tomography in identifying poor prognostic factors in colonic cancer. Br J Surg, 97(9), 1407-1415. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.7096

Dighe, S., Purkayastha, S., Swift, I., Tekkis, P. P., Darzi, A., A'Hern, R., & Brown, G. (2010). Diagnostic precision of CT in local staging of colon cancers: a meta-analysis. Clin Radiol, 65(9), 708-719. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2010.01.024

Dighe, S., Swift, I., & Brown, G. (2008). CT staging of colon cancer. Clin Radiol, 63(12), 1372-1379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2008.04.021

Dormann, A., Meisner, S., Verin, N., & Lang, A. W. (2004). Self-expanding metal stents for gastroduodenal malignancies: Systematic review of their clinical effectiveness. Endoscopy, 36(6), 543-550. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-814434

Douillard, J. Y., Cunningham, D., Roth, A. D., Navarro, M., James, R. D., Karasek, P., . . . Rougier, P. (2000). Irinotecan combined with fluorouracil compared with fluorouracil alone as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet, 355(9209), 1041-1047. https://doi.org/Doi 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02034-1

Douillard, J. Y., Oliner, K. S., Siena, S., Tabernero, J., Burkes, R., Barugel, M., . . . Patterson, S. D. (2013). Panitumumab-FOLFOX4 treatment and RAS mutations in colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med, 369(11), 1023-1034. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1305275

Douillard, J. Y., Siena, S., Cassidy, J., Tabernero, J., Burkes, R., Barugel, M., . . . Gansert, J. (2010). Randomized, Phase III Trial of Panitumumab With Infusional Fluorouracil, Leucovorin, and Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) Versus FOLFOX4 Alone As First-Line Treatment in Patients With Previously Untreated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The PRIME Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28(31), 4697-4705. https://doi.org/10.1200/Jco.2009.27.4860

Dube, S., Heyen, F., & Jenicek, M. (1997). Adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal carcinoma: results of a meta-analysis. Dis Colon Rectum, 40(1), 35-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02055679

Ducreux, M., Malka, D., Mendiboure, J., Etienne, P. L., Texereau, P., Auby, D., . . . Federation Francophone de Cancerologie Digestive -05 Collaborative, G. (2011). Sequential versus combination chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (FFCD 2000-05): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol, 12(11), 1032-1044. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(11)70199-1

Dybdahl, J. H., Daae, L. N., Larsen, S., & Myren, J. (1984). Occult faecal blood loss determined by a 51Cr method and chemical tests in patients referred for colonoscopy. Scand J Gastroenterol, 19(2), 245-254.

Dørum, L. M., Larsen, I. K., Kndusen, K. O., Aaserud, S., Vonen, B., & Møller, B. (2017). Evaluering av datakvaliteten i Nasjonalt kvalitetsregister for tykk- og endetarmskreft. Oslo: Kreftregisteret. Hentet fra https://www.kreftregisteret.no/globalassets/publikasjoner-og-rapporter/andre-publikasjoner/rapport-kvalitetssikringsprosjekt-nasjonalt-kvalitetsregister-for-tykk--og-endetarmskreft.pdf

Eaden, J., Abrams, K., Ekbom, A., Jackson, E., & Mayberry, J. (2000). Colorectal cancer prevention in ulcerative colitis: a case-control study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 14(2), 145-153. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.2000.00698.x

Eaden, J. A., Abrams, K. R., & Mayberry, J. F. (2001). The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis. Gut, 48(4), 526-535. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.48.4.526

East, J. E., Atkin, W. S., Bateman, A. C., Clark, S. K., Dolwani, S., Ket, S. N., . . . Rees, C. J. (2017). British Society of Gastroenterology position statement on serrated polyps in the colon and rectum. Gut, 66(7), 1181-1196. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314005

Edler, D., Ohrling, K., Hallstrom, M., Karlberg, M., & Ragnhammar, P. (2007). The number of analyzed lymph nodes - a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Acta Oncol, 46(7), 975-981. https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860701203537

Edna, T. H., Karlsen, V., Jullumstro, E., & Lydersen, S. (2012). Prevalence of Anaemia at Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer: Assessment of Associated Risk Factors. Hepato-Gastroenterology, 59(115), 713-716. https://doi.org/10.5754/hge11479

Edwards, D. P., Sexton, R., Heald, R. J., & Moran, B. J. (2007). Long-term results show triple stapling facilitates safe low colorectal and coloanal anastomosis and is associated with low rates of local recurrence after anterior resection for rectal cancer. Tech Coloproctol, 11(1), 17-21.

Efficacy of adjuvant fluorouracil and folinic acid in colon cancer. International Multicentre Pooled Analysis of Colon Cancer Trials (IMPACT) investigators. (1995). Lancet, 345(8955), 939-944.

Elias, D., Goere, D., Di Pietrantonio, D., Boige, V., Malka, D., Kohneh-Shahri, N., . . . Ducreux, M. (2008). Results of systematic second-look surgery in patients at high risk of developing colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis. Annals of Surgery, 247(3), 445-450. https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e31815f0113

Elias, D., Lefevre, J. H., Chevalier, J., Brouquet, A., Marchal, F., Classe, J. M., . . . Bonastre, J. (2009). Complete cytoreductive surgery plus intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia with oxaliplatin for peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin. J Clin Oncol, 27(5), 681-685. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.19.7160

Elias, D., Raynard, B., Farkhondeh, F., Goere, D., Rouquie, D., Ciuchendea, R., . . . Ducreux, M. (2006). Peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin. Gastroenterol Clin Biol, 30(10), 1200-1204. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0399-8320(06)73512-6

Erichsen, R., Baron, J. A., Hamilton-Dutoit, S. J., Snover, D. C., Torlakovic, E. E., Pedersen, L., . . . Sørensen, H. T. (2016). Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer Development Among Patients With Serrated Polyps. Gastroenterology, 150(4), 895-902.e895. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2015.11.046

Eriksen, M. T., Wibe, A., Syse, A., Haffner, J., Wiig, J. N., Norwegian Rectal Cancer, G., & Norwegian Gastrointestinal Cancer, G. (2004). Inadvertent perforation during rectal cancer resection in Norway. Br J Surg, 91(2), 210-216. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.4390

Erlandsson, J., Holm, T., Pettersson, D., Berglund, Å., Cedermark, B., Radu, C., . . . Martling, A. (2017). Optimal fractionation of preoperative radiotherapy and timing to surgery for rectal cancer (Stockholm III): a multicentre, randomised, non-blinded, phase 3, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Oncol, 18(3), 336-346. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(17)30086-4

Erlandsson, J., Lörinc, E., Ahlberg, M., Pettersson, D., Holm, T., Glimelius, B., & Martling, A. (2019). Tumour regression after radiotherapy for rectal cancer - Results from the randomised Stockholm III trial. Radiother Oncol, 135, 178-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2019.03.016

Fairley, K. J., Li, J., Komar, M., Steigerwalt, N., & Erlich, P. (2014). Predicting the risk of recurrent adenoma and incident colorectal cancer based on findings of the baseline colonoscopy. Clin Transl Gastroenterol, 5(12), e64. https://doi.org/10.1038/ctg.2014.11

Falcone, A., Ricci, S., Brunetti, I., Pfanner, E., Allegrini, G., Barbara, C., . . . Masi, G. (2007). Phase III trial of infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan (FOLFOXIRI) compared with infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: the Gruppo Oncologico Nord Ovest. J Clin Oncol, 25(13), 1670-1676. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2006.09.0928

Fanucchi, O., Ambrogi, M. C., Aprile, V., Cioni, R., Cappelli, C., Melfi, F., . . . Mussi, A. (2016). Long-term results of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary metastases: a single institution experience. Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery, 23(1), 57-64. https://doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivw089

Faron, M., Pignon, J. P., Malka, D., Bourredjem, A., Douillard, J. Y., Adenis, A., . . . Ducreux, M. (2015). Is primary tumour resection associated with survival improvement in patients with colorectal cancer and unresectable synchronous metastases? A pooled analysis of individual data from four randomised trials. Eur J Cancer, 51(2), 166-176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2014.10.023

Fearon, K. C., Ljungqvist, O., Von Meyenfeldt, M., Revhaug, A., Dejong, C. H., Lassen, K., . . . Kehlet, H. (2005). Enhanced recovery after surgery: a consensus review of clinical care for patients undergoing colonic resection. Clin Nutr, 24(3), 466-477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2005.02.002

Fekjær, H., & Møller, B. ([s.a.]). Nordpred software package [software]. Oslo: Cancer Registry of Norway. Hentet fra https://www.kreftregisteret.no/en/Research/Projects/Nordpred/Nordpred-software/

Ferlay, J., Ervik, M., Lam, F., Colombet, M., Mery, L., Piñeros, M., . . . Bray, F. (2020). Cancer Today. [database]. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Hentet 27. september 2021, fra http://gco.iarc.fr/today

Fichtinger, R. S. (2021). Laparoscopic versus open hemihepatectomy: The ORANGE II PLUS multicenter randomized controlled trial. Foredrag på 14th Congress of the European-African Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (E-AHPBA),  15-17 September 2021, Bilbao. Virtual Congress.

Figueredo, A., Charette, M. L., Maroun, J., Brouwers, M. C., & Zuraw, L. (2004). Adjuvant therapy for stage II colon cancer: a systematic review from the Cancer Care Ontario Program in evidence-based care's gastrointestinal cancer disease site group. J Clin Oncol, 22(16), 3395-3407. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2004.03.087

Fleshman, J., Branda, M., Sargent, D. J., Boller, A. M., George, V., Abbas, M., . . . Nelson, H. (2015). Effect of Laparoscopic-Assisted Resection vs Open Resection of Stage II or III Rectal Cancer on Pathologic Outcomes: The ACOSOG Z6051 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA, 314(13), 1346-1355. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.10529

Fleshman, J., Sargent, D. J., Green, E., Anvari, M., Stryker, S. J., Beart, R. W., Jr., . . . Nelson, H. (2007). Laparoscopic colectomy for cancer is not inferior to open surgery based on 5-year data from the COST Study Group trial. Ann Surg, 246(4), 655-662; discussion 662-654. https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e318155a762

Folprecht, G., Gruenberger, T., Bechstein, W., Raab, H. R., Weitz, J., Lordick, F., . . . Kohne, C. H. (2014). Survival of patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases treated with FOLFOX/cetuximab or FOLFIRI/cetuximab in a multidisciplinary concept (CELIM study). Ann Oncol, 25(5), 1018-1025. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdu088

Ford, A. C., Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S. J., Rodgers, C. C., Talley, N. J., Vakil, N. B., & Moayyedi, P. (2008). Diagnostic utility of alarm features for colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut, 57(11), 1545-1553. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2008.159723

Forsmo, H. M., Erichsen, C., Rasdal, A., Tvinnereim, J. M., Körner, H., & Pfeffer, F. (2018). Randomized Controlled Trial of Extended Perioperative Counseling in Enhanced Recovery After Colorectal Surgery. Dis Colon Rectum, 61(6), 724-732. https://doi.org/10.1097/dcr.0000000000001007

Forsmo, H. M., Pfeffer, F., Rasdal, A., Sintonen, H., Körner, H., & Erichsen, C. (2016). Pre- and postoperative stoma education and guidance within an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programme reduces length of hospital stay in colorectal surgery. Int J Surg, 36(Pt A), 121-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2016.10.031

Foxtrot Collaborative, G. (2012). Feasibility of preoperative chemotherapy for locally advanced, operable colon cancer: the pilot phase of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol, 13(11), 1152-1160. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(12)70348-0

Francini, G., Petrioli, R., Lorenzini, L., Mancini, S., Armenio, S., Tanzini, G., . . . Lorenzi, M. (1994). Folinic Acid and 5-Fluorouracil as Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Colon-Cancer. Gastroenterology, 106(4), 899-906. https://doi.org/Doi 10.1016/0016-5085(94)90748-X

Franko, J., Gusani, N. J., Holtzman, M. P., Ahrendt, S. A., Jones, H. L., Zeh, H. J., III, & Bartlett, D. L. (2008). Multivisceral resection does not affect morbidity and survival after cytoreductive surgery and chemoperfusion for carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol, 15(11), 3065-3072.

Fretland Å, A., Dagenborg, V. J., Bjørnelv, G. M. W., Kazaryan, A. M., Kristiansen, R., Fagerland, M. W., . . . Edwin, B. (2018). Laparoscopic Versus Open Resection for Colorectal Liver Metastases: The OSLO-COMET Randomized Controlled Trial. Ann Surg, 267(2), 199-207. https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000002353

Friedman, S., Rubin, P. H., Bodian, C., Goldstein, E., Harpaz, N., & Present, D. H. (2001). Screening and surveillance colonoscopy in chronic Crohn's colitis. Gastroenterology, 120(4), 820-826. https://doi.org/10.1053/gast.2001.22449

Frykholm, G. J., Pahlman, L., & Glimelius, B. (2001). Combined chemo- and radiotherapy vs. radiotherapy alone in the treatment of primary, nonresectable adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 50(2), 427-434. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0360-3016(01)01479-1

Frøysnes, I. S., Larsen, S. G., Spasojevic, M., Dueland, S., & Flatmark, K. (2016). Complete cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal metastasis in Norway: Prognostic factors and oncologic outcome in a national patient cohort. J Surg Oncol, 114(2), 222-227. https://doi.org/10.1002/jso.24290

Fuchs, C. S., Marshall, J., Mitchell, E., Wierzbicki, R., Ganju, V., Jeffery, M., . . . Barrueco, J. (2007). Randomized, controlled trial of irinotecan plus infusional, bolus, or oral fluoropyrimidines in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: results from the BICC-C Study. J Clin Oncol, 25(30), 4779-4786. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.11.3357

Fumery, M., Dulai, P. S., Gupta, S., Prokop, L. J., Ramamoorthy, S., Sandborn, W. J., & Singh, S. (2017). Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis With Low-Grade Dysplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 15(5), 665-674.e665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2016.11.025

Galon, J., Costes, A., Sanchez-Cabo, F., Kirilovsky, A., Mlecnik, B., Lagorce-Pages, C., . . . Pages, F. (2006). Type, density, and location of immune cells within human colorectal tumors predict clinical outcome. Science, 313(5795), 1960-1964. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1129139

Gastroenterological endoscopy. (2002). Stuttgart; New York: Thieme.

Gastrointestinal pathology: an atlas and text. (1999). (s. 961). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.

Gavin, P. G., Colangelo, L. H., Fumagalli, D., Tanaka, N., Remillard, M. Y., Yothers, G., . . . Pogue-Geile, K. L. (2012). Mutation profiling and microsatellite instability in stage II and III colon cancer: an assessment of their prognostic and oxaliplatin predictive value. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 18(23), 6531-6541. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-12-0605

Generelt om klinisk utprøving av legemidler. (2009).Oslo: Legemiddelverket. Hentet 09.12.2009, fra www.legemiddelverket.no

Georgiou, P., Tan, E., Gouvas, N., Antoniou, A., Brown, G., Nicholls, R. J., & Tekkis, P. (2009). Extended lymphadenectomy versus conventional surgery for rectal cancer: a meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol, 10(11), 1053-1062. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(09)70224-4

Gerard, J. P., Conroy, T., Bonnetain, F., Bouche, O., Chapet, O., Closon-Dejardin, M. T., . . . Bedenne, L. (2006). Preoperative radiotherapy with or without concurrent fluorouracil and leucovorin in T3-4 rectal cancers: Results of FFCD 9203. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24(28), 4620-4625. https://doi.org/10.1200/Jco.2006.06.7629

Giantonio, B. J., Catalano, P. J., Meropol, N. J., O'Dwyer, P. J., Mitchell, E. P., Alberts, S. R., . . . Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study, E. (2007). Bevacizumab in combination with oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFOX4) for previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer: results from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study E3200. J Clin Oncol, 25(12), 1539-1544. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.09.6305

Gibson, J. A., & Odze, R. D. (2016). Pathology of premalignant colorectal neoplasia. Dig Endosc, 28(3), 312-323. https://doi.org/10.1111/den.12633

Gibson, K. M., Chan, C., Chapuis, P. H., Dent, O. F., & Bokey, L. (2014). Mural and extramural venous invasion and prognosis in colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum, 57(8), 916-926. https://doi.org/10.1097/dcr.0000000000000162

Gill, S., Loprinzi, C. L., Sargent, D. J., Thome, S. D., Alberts, S. R., Haller, D. G., . . . Goldberg, R. M. (2004). Pooled analysis of fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy for stage II and III colon cancer: who benefits and by how much? J Clin Oncol, 22(10), 1797-1806.

Glehen, O., Kwiatkowski, F., Sugarbaker, P. H., Elias, D., Levine, E. A., De Simone, M., . . . Rat, P. (2004). Cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the management of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: a multi-institutional study. J Clin Oncol, 22(16), 3284-3292. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2004.10.012

Glimelius, B. (2020). Adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer: state of the art and future perspectives. Curr Opin Oncol, 32(4), 377-383. https://doi.org/10.1097/cco.0000000000000641

Glimelius, B., & Cavalli-Bjorkman, N. (2012). Metastatic colorectal cancer: Current treatment and future options for improved survival Medical approach - present status. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 47(3), 296-314. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2012.640828

Glimelius, B., Dahl, O., Cedermark, B., Jakobsen, A., Bentzen, S. M., Starkhammar, H., . . . Nordic Gastrointestinal Tumour Adjuvant Therapy, G. (2005). Adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer: a joint analysis of randomised trials by the Nordic Gastrointestinal Tumour Adjuvant Therapy Group. Acta Oncol, 44(8), 904-912. https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860500355900

Glimelius, B., Gronberg, H., Jarhult, J., Wallgren, A., & Cavallin-Stahl, E. (2003). A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in rectal cancer. Acta Oncol, 42(5-6), 476-492. https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860310012301

Glimelius, B., Jakobsen, A., Graf, W., Berglund, A., Gadeberg, C., Hansen, P., . . . Gustavsson, B. (1998). Bolus injection (2-4 min) versus short-term (10-20 min) infusion of 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced colorectal cancer: a prospective randomised trial. Nordic Gastrointestinal Tumour Adjuvant Therapy Group. Eur J Cancer, 34(5), 674-678. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0959-8049(97)10055-7

Glimelius, B., Myklebust, T., Lundqvist, K., Wibe, A., & Guren, M. G. (2016). Two countries - Two treatment strategies for rectal cancer. Radiother Oncol, 121(3), 357-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2016.11.010

Glimelius, B., Ristamaki, R., Kjaer, M., Pfeiffer, P., Skovsgaard, T., Tveit, K. M., . . . Pyrhonen, S. (2002). Irinotecan combined with bolus 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid Nordic schedule as first-line therapy in advanced colorectal cancer. Annals of Oncology, 13(12), 1868-1873. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdf324

Glimelius, B., Sorbye, H., Balteskard, L., Bystrom, P., Pfeiffer, P., Tveit, K., . . . Berglund, A. (2008). A randomized phase III multicenter trial comparing irinotecan in combination with the Nordic bolus 5-FU and folinic acid schedule or the bolus/infused de Gramont schedule (Lv5FU2) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol, 19(5), 909-914. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdm588

Glimelius, B., Tiret, E., Cervantes, A., & Arnold, D. (2013). Rectal cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol, 24 Suppl 6, vi81-88. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdt240

Glynne-Jones, R., Wyrwicz, L., Tiret, E., Brown, G., Rödel, C., Cervantes, A., & Arnold, D. (2017). Rectal cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol, 28(suppl_4), iv22-iv40. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdx224

Gondal, G., Grotmol, T., Hofstad, B., Bretthauer, M., Eide, T. J., & Hoff, G. (2005). Biopsy of colorectal polyps is not adequate for grading of neoplasia. Endoscopy, 37(12), 1193-1197.

Gonzalez, M., Poncet, A., Combescure, C., Robert, J., Ris, H. B., & Gervaz, P. (2013). Risk factors for survival after lung metastasectomy in colorectal cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Surg Oncol, 20(2), 572-579. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-012-2726-3

Gonzalez, M., Ris, H. B., Krueger, T., & Gervaz, P. (2012). Colorectal cancer and thoracic surgeons: close encounters of the third kind. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther, 12(4), 495-503. https://doi.org/10.1586/era.12.21

Gorissen, K. J., Benning, D., Berghmans, T., Snoeijs, M. G., Sosef, M. N., Hulsewe, K. W., & Luyer, M. D. (2012). Risk of anastomotic leakage with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in colorectal surgery. Br J Surg, 99(5), 721-727. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.8691

Gramont Lesparre, A. H., Chibaudel, B., Bourges, O., Perez-Staub, N., Tournigand, C., Maindrault-Goebel, F., . . . Louvet, C. (2009). Definition of oxaliplatin sensitivity in patients with advanced colorectal cancer previously treated with oxaliplatin-based therapy. [Foredrag på 2009 ASCO Annual Meeting]. J Clin Oncol, 27(15 Suppl), 4024.

Grothey, A. (2010). Reintroduction of oxaliplatin: a viable approach to the long-term management of metastatic colorectal cancer. Oncology, 79(5-6), 389-399. https://doi.org/10.1159/000323491

Grothey, A., Sobrero, A. F., Shields, A. F., Yoshino, T., Paul, J., Taieb, J., . . . Iveson, T. (2018). Duration of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage III Colon Cancer. N Engl J Med, 378(13), 1177-1188. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1713709

Grothey, A., Van Cutsem, E., Sobrero, A., Siena, S., Falcone, A., Ychou, M., . . . Laurent, D. (2013). Regorafenib monotherapy for previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer (CORRECT): an international, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet, 381(9863), 303-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(12)61900-x

Group., C. C. C. (2001). Adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer: a systematic overview of 8,507 patients from 22 randomised trials. Lancet, 358(9290), 1291-1304.

Gruenberger, B., Tamandl, D., Schueller, J., Scheithauer, W., Zielinski, C., Herbst, F., & Gruenberger, T. (2008). Bevacizumab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin as neoadjuvant therapy for patients with potentially curable metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol, 26(11), 1830-1835. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2007.13.7679

Gschwantler, M., Kriwanek, S., Langner, E., Goritzer, B., Schrutka-Kolbl, C., Brownstone, E., . . . Weiss, W. (2002). High-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in colorectal adenomas: a multivariate analysis of the impact of adenoma and patient characteristics. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 14(2), 183-188. https://doi.org/10.1097/00042737-200202000-00013

Guay, J., Nishimori, M., & Kopp, S. (2016). Epidural local anaesthetics versus opioid-based analgesic regimens for postoperative gastrointestinal paralysis, vomiting and pain after abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 7(7), Cd001893. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001893.pub2

Guenaga, K. F., Matos, D., & Wille-Jorgensen, P. (2011). Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (9), CD001544. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001544.pub4

Guidelines for the management of colorectal cancer. (2007). London: The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain & Ireland.

Guillou, P. J., Quirke, P., Thorpe, H., Walker, J., Jayne, D. G., Smith, A. M., . . . group, M. C. t. (2005). Short-term endpoints of conventional versus laparoscopic-assisted surgery in patients with colorectal cancer (MRC CLASICC trial): multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 365(9472), 1718-1726. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66545-2

Gunderson, L. L., Haddock, M. G., Nelson, H., Cha, S., Devine, R. M., Fieck, J. M., . . . OConnell, M. J. (1997). Locally recurrent colorectal cancer: IOERT and EBRT+/-5-FU and maximal resection. Intraoperative Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Cancer, 31, 224-228.

Gupta, S., Lieberman, D., Anderson, J. C., Burke, C. A., Dominitz, J. A., Kaltenbach, T., . . . Rex, D. K. (2020). Recommendations for Follow-Up After Colonoscopy and Polypectomy: A Consensus Update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology, 158(4), 1131-1153.e1135. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.10.026

Guren, M. G., Kørner, H., Pfeffer, F., Myklebust, T. Å., Eriksen, M. T., Edna, T. H., . . . Wibe, A. (2015). Nationwide improvement of rectal cancer treatment outcomes in Norway, 1993-2010. Acta Oncol, 54(10), 1714-1722. https://doi.org/10.3109/0284186x.2015.1034876

Guren, M. G., Undseth, C., Rekstad, B. L., Brændengen, M., Dueland, S., Spindler, K. L., . . . Tveit, K. M. (2014). Reirradiation of locally recurrent rectal cancer: a systematic review. Radiother Oncol, 113(2), 151-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2014.11.021

Gustafsson, U. O., Scott, M. J., Schwenk, W., Demartines, N., Roulin, D., Francis, N., . . . Nutrition. (2013). Guidelines for perioperative care in elective colonic surgery: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS((R))) Society recommendations. World J Surg, 37(2), 259-284. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-012-1772-0

Gaard, M., Drolsum A, Vikil E, & V., Y. (2014). CT kolografi (CTK) i utredningen av pasienter med koloncancer. Kirurgen, (1), 9-11.

Gaard, M., Tveit, K. M., & Hafstad, A. (2015). Kreftkirurgi i Norge (IS-2284). Oslo: Helsedirektoratet. Hentet fra https://helsedirektoratet.no/Documents/Nyheter/IS-2284%20Rapport%20om%20kreftkirurgi%20i%20Norge.pdf

Haggitt, R. C., Glotzbach, R. E., Soffer, E. E., & Wruble, L. D. (1985). Prognostic factors in colorectal carcinomas arising in adenomas: implications for lesions removed by endoscopic polypectomy. Gastroenterology, 89(2), 328-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(85)90333-6

Hagness, M., Foss, A., Line, P. D., Scholz, T., Jorgensen, P. F., Fosby, B., . . . Dueland, S. (2013). Liver transplantation for nonresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Ann Surg, 257(5), 800-806. https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182823957

Halligan, S., Altman, D. G., Taylor, S. A., Mallett, S., Deeks, J. J., Bartram, C. I., & Atkin, W. (2005). CT colonography in the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer: systematic review, meta-analysis, and proposed minimum data set for study level reporting. Radiology, 237(3), 893-904. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2373050176

Hamilton, W., Lancashire, R., Sharp, D., Peters, T. J., Cheng, K. K., & Marshall, T. (2009). The risk of colorectal cancer with symptoms at different ages and between the sexes: a case-control study. Bmc Medicine, 7, 17. https://doi.org/Artn 17

10.1186/1741-7015-7-17

Hampel, H., Frankel, W. L., Martin, E., Arnold, M., Khanduja, K., Kuebler, P., . . . de la Chapelle, A. (2005). Screening for the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). N Engl J Med, 352(18), 1851-1860. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa043146

Han-Geurts, I. J., Hop, W. C., Kok, N. F., Lim, A., Brouwer, K. J., & Jeekel, J. (2007). Randomized clinical trial of the impact of early enteral feeding on postoperative ileus and recovery. Br J Surg, 94(5), 555-561. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.5753

Hannon, B., & Zimmermann, C. (2013). Early palliative care: moving from 'why' to 'how'. Oncology (Williston Park), 27(1).

Hansen, M. F., Johansen, J., Bjørnevoll, I., Sylvander, A. E., Steinsbekk, K. S., Sætrom, P., . . . Sjursen, W. (2015). A novel POLE mutation associated with cancers of colon, pancreas, ovaries and small intestine. Fam Cancer, 14(3), 437-448. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10689-015-9803-2

Hansen, M. H., Balteskard, L., Dorum, L. M., Eriksen, M. T., Vonen, B., & Norwegian Colorectal Cancer, G. (2009). Locally recurrent rectal cancer in Norway. Br J Surg, 96(10), 1176-1182. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.6699

Hansmann, A., & Burling, D. (2013). Essential requirements of a CT colonography service. Eur J Radiol, 82(8), 1187-1191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2012.03.018

Hassan, C., Antonelli, G., Dumonceau, J. M., Regula, J., Bretthauer, M., Chaussade, S., . . . Quintero, E. (2020). Post-polypectomy colonoscopy surveillance: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline - Update 2020. Endoscopy, 52(8), 687-700. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1185-3109

Hassan, C., Pickhardt, P. J., Kim, D. H., Di Giulio, E., Zullo, A., Laghi, A., . . . Annibale, B. (2010). Systematic review: distribution of advanced neoplasia according to polyp size at screening colonoscopy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 31(2), 210-217. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2009.04160.x

Hassan, C., Zullo, A., Winn, S., Eramo, A., Tomao, S., Rossini, F. P., & Morini, S. (2007). The colorectal malignant polyp: scoping a dilemma. Dig Liver Dis, 39(1), 92-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2006.06.039

Hatfield, P., Hingorani, M., Radhakrishna, G., Cooper, R., Melcher, A., Crellin, A., . . . Sebag-Montefiore, D. (2009). Short-course radiotherapy, with elective delay prior to surgery, in patients with unresectable rectal cancer who have poor performance status or significant co-morbidity. Radiother Oncol, 92(2), 210-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2009.04.007

Haugland, H. K., Casati, B., Dorum, L. M., & Bjugn, R. (2011). Template reporting matters--a nationwide study on histopathology reporting on colorectal carcinoma resections. Hum Pathol, 42(1), 36-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2010.06.009

Hausel, J., Nygren, J., Lagerkranser, M., Hellstrom, P. M., Hammarqvist, F., Almstrom, C., . . . Ljungqvist, O. (2001). A carbohydrate-rich drink reduces preoperative discomfort in elective surgery patients. Anesth Analg, 93(5), 1344-1350. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000539-200111000-00063

Hazebroek, E. J., & Color Study, G. (2002). COLOR: a randomized clinical trial comparing laparoscopic and open resection for colon cancer. Surg Endosc, 16(6), 949-953. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-001-8165-z

He, X., Hang, D., Wu, K., Nayor, J., Drew, D. A., Giovannucci, E. L., . . . Song, M. (2020). Long-term Risk of Colorectal Cancer After Removal of Conventional Adenomas and Serrated Polyps. Gastroenterology, 158(4), 852-861.e854. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.06.039

Heald, R. J., Husband, E. M., & Ryall, R. D. (1982). The mesorectum in rectal cancer surgery--the clue to pelvic recurrence? Br J Surg, 69(10), 613-616. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.1800691019

Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet. (2018). Leve med kreft - nasjonal kreftstrategi 2018-2022.  Oslo: Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet Hentet fra https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/266bf1eec38940888a589ec86d79da20/regjeringens_kreftstrategi_180418.pdf.

Herbert, G., Sutton, E., Burden, S., Lewis, S., Thomas, S., Ness, A., & Atkinson, C. (2017). Healthcare professionals' views of the enhanced recovery after surgery programme: a qualitative investigation. BMC Health Serv Res, 17(1), 617. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2547-y

Hermanek, P., Merkel, S., Fietkau, R., Rodel, C., & Hohenberger, W. (2010). Regional lymph node metastasis and locoregional recurrence of rectal carcinoma in the era of TME [corrected] surgery. Implications for treatment decisions. Int J Colorectal Dis, 25(3), 359-368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00384-009-0864-2

Hershman, D., Hall, M. J., Wang, X., Jacobson, J. S., McBride, R., Grann, V. R., & Neugut, A. I. (2006). Timing of adjuvant chemotherapy initiation after surgery for stage III colon cancer. Cancer, 107(11), 2581-2588. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22316

Higgins, H., & Berger, D. L. (2006). RFA for liver tumors: does it really work? Oncologist, 11(7), 801-808.

Hjerkind, K. V., Qureshi, S. A., Møller, B., Weiderpass, E., Deapen, D., Kumar, B., & Ursin, G. (2017). Ethnic differences in the incidence of cancer in Norway. Int J Cancer, 140(8), 1770-1780. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30598

Hoff, G., Botteri, E., Huppertz-Hauss, G., Kvamme, J. M., Holme, Ø., Aabakken, L., . . . Seip, B. (2021). The effect of train-the-colonoscopy-trainer course on colonoscopy quality indicators. Endoscopy, 53(12), 1229-1234. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1352-4583

Hoff, G., Foerster, A., Vatn, M. H., Sauar, J., & Larsen, S. (1986). Epidemiology of polyps in the rectum and colon. Recovery and evaluation of unresected polyps 2 years after detection. Scand J Gastroenterol, 21(7), 853-862. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365528609011130

Hofheinz, R. D., Horisberger, K., Woernle, C., Wenz, F., Kraus-Tiefenbacher, U., Kahler, G., . . . Willeke, F. (2006). Phase I trial of cetuximab in combination with capecitabine, weekly irinotecan, and radiotherapy as neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, 66(5), 1384-1390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.07.005

Hofstad, B., Vatn, M. H., Andersen, S. N., Huitfeldt, H. S., Rognum, T., Larsen, S., & Osnes, M. (1996). Growth of colorectal polyps: redetection and evaluation of unresected polyps for a period of three years. Gut, 39(3), 449-456. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.39.3.449

Hohenberger, W., Reingruber, B., & Merkel, S. (2003). Surgery for colon cancer. Scand J Surg, 92(1), 45-52. https://doi.org/10.1177/145749690309200107

Hohenberger, W., Weber, K., Matzel, K., Papadopoulos, T., & Merkel, S. (2009). Standardized surgery for colonic cancer: complete mesocolic excision and central ligation - technical notes and outcome. Colorectal Disease, 11(4), 354-364. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2008.01735.x

Hole, K. H., Larsen, S. G., Groholt, K. K., Giercksky, K. E., & Ree, A. H. (2013). Magnetic resonance-guided histopathology for improved accuracy of tumor response evaluation of neoadjuvant treatment in organ-infiltrating rectal cancer. Radiother Oncol, 107(2), 178-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2013.03.017

Holm, T., Ljung, A., Haggmark, T., Jurell, G., & Lagergren, J. (2007). Extended abdominoperineal resection with gluteus maximus flap reconstruction of the pelvic floor for rectal cancer. Br J Surg, 94(2), 232-238. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.5489

Holme, Ø., Bretthauer, M., Fretheim, A., Odgaard-Jensen, J., & Hoff, G. (2013). Flexible sigmoidoscopy versus faecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer screening in asymptomatic individuals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 9, CD009259. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009259.pub2

Holme, Ø., Løberg, M., Kalager, M., Bretthauer, M., Hernán, M. A., Aas, E., . . . Hoff, G. (2014). Effect of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 312(6), 606-615. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.8266

Holte, K., Foss, N. B., Svensen, C., Lund, C., Madsen, J. L., & Kehlet, H. (2004). Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume. Anesthesiology, 100(2), 281-286. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-200402000-00016

Hoskin, P., Misra, V., Hopkins, K., Holt, T., Brown, G., Arnott, S., . . . Forsyth, S. (2017). SCORAD III: Randomized noninferiority phase III trial of single-dose radiotherapy (RT) compared to multifraction RT in patients (pts) with metastatic spinal canal compression (SCC). J Clin Oncol, 35(18 suppl), LBA10004. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.35.18_suppl.LBA10004

Hovde, Ø., Høivik, M. L., Henriksen, M., Solberg, I. C., Småstuen, M. C., & Moum, B. A. (2017). Malignancies in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Results from 20 Years of Follow-up in the IBSEN Study. J Crohns Colitis, 11(5), 571-577. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw193

Howie, L., & Peppercorn, J. (2013). Early palliative care in cancer treatment: rationale, evidence and clinical implications. Therapeutic advances in medical oncology, 5(6), 318-323. https://doi.org/10.1177/1758834013500375

Huang, C. Q., Min, Y., Wang, S. Y., Yang, X. J., Liu, Y., Xiong, B., . . . Li, Y. (2017). Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy improves survival for peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of current evidence. Oncotarget, 8(33), 55657-55683. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.17497

Hunter, J. A., Ryan, J. A., Jr., & Schultz, P. (1987). En bloc resection of colon cancer adherent to other organs. Am J Surg, 154(1), 67-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9610(87)90292-3

Hurwitz, H., Fehrenbacher, L., Novotny, W., Cartwright, T., Hainsworth, J., Heim, W., . . . Kabbinavar, F. (2004). Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med, 350(23), 2335-2342. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa032691

Hutchins, G., Southward, K., Handley, K., Magill, L., Beaumont, C., Stahlschmidt, J., . . . Quirke, P. (2011). Value of mismatch repair, KRAS, and BRAF mutations in predicting recurrence and benefits from chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol, 29(10), 1261-1270. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2010.30.1366

Hyltander, A., Bosaeus, I., Svedlund, J., Liedman, B., Hugosson, I., Wallengren, O., . . . Lundholm, K. (2005). Supportive nutrition on recovery of metabolism, nutritional state, health-related quality of life, and exercise capacity after major surgery: a randomized study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 3(5), 466-474. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1542-3565(05)00151-5

Ihnát, P., Guňková, P., Peteja, M., Vávra, P., Pelikán, A., & Zonča, P. (2016). Diverting ileostomy in laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery: high price of protection. Surg Endosc, 30(11), 4809-4816. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-016-4811-3

Improving outcomes in colorectal cancers: research evidence for the manual update. (2004). London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence.

Internullo, E., Cassivi, S. D., Van Raemdonck, D., Friedel, G., Treasure, T., & Group, E. P. M. W. (2008). Pulmonary metastasectomy: a survey of current practice amongst members of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Thorac Oncol, 3(11), 1257-1266. https://doi.org/10.1097/JTO.0b013e31818bd9da

Jacob, S., Aguado, M., Fallik, D., & Praz, F. (2001). The role of the DNA mismatch repair system in the cytotoxicity of the topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin and etoposide to human colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Res, 61(17), 6555-6562.

Jafari, M. D., Halabi, W. J., Jafari, F., Nguyen, V. Q., Stamos, M. J., Carmichael, J. C., . . . Pigazzi, A. (2013). Morbidity of diverting ileostomy for rectal cancer: analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Am Surg, 79(10), 1034-1039.

Janssen-Heijnen, M. L., Houterman, S., Lemmens, V. E., Brenner, H., Steyerberg, E. W., & Coebergh, J. W. (2007). Prognosis for long-term survivors of cancer. Ann Oncol, 18(8), 1408-1413. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdm127

Jarvinen, H. J., Aarnio, M., Mustonen, H., Aktan-Collan, K., Aaltonen, L. A., Peltomaki, P., . . . Mecklin, J. P. (2000). Controlled 15-year trial on screening for colorectal cancer in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology, 118(5), 829-834. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0016-5085(00)70168-5

Jayne, D. G., Fook, S., Loi, C., & Seow-Choen, F. (2002). Peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. Br J Surg, 89(12), 1545-1550. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2168.2002.02274.x

Jayne, D. G., Thorpe, H. C., Copeland, J., Quirke, P., Brown, J. M., & Guillou, P. J. (2010). Five-year follow-up of the Medical Research Council CLASICC trial of laparoscopically assisted versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. Br J Surg, 97(11), 1638-1645. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.7160

Jeffery, M., Hickey, B. E., & Hider, P. N. (2019). Follow-up strategies for patients treated for non-metastatic colorectal cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 9, CD002200. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002200.pub4

Jensen, A. G., Callesen, T., Hagemo, J. S., Hreinsson, K., Lund, V., & Nordmark, J. (2010). Scandinavian clinical practice guidelines on general anaesthesia for emergency situations. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 54(8), 922-950. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-6576.2010.02277.x

Jeong, S. Y., Park, J. W., Nam, B. H., Kim, S., Kang, S. B., Lim, S. B., . . . Oh, J. H. (2014). Open versus laparoscopic surgery for mid-rectal or low-rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (COREAN trial): survival outcomes of an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol, 15(7), 767-774. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(14)70205-0

Jess, T., Loftus, E. V., Jr., Velayos, F. S., Harmsen, W. S., Zinsmeister, A. R., Smyrk, T. C., . . . Sandborn, W. J. (2006). Risk of intestinal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study from olmsted county, Minnesota. Gastroenterology, 130(4), 1039-1046. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2005.12.037

Jestin, P., Nilsson, J., Heurgren, M., Pahlman, L., Glimelius, B., & Gunnarsson, U. (2005). Emergency surgery for colonic cancer in a defined population. Br J Surg, 92(1), 94-100. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.4780

Jesus, E. C., Karliczek, A., Matos, D., Castro, A. A., & Atallah, A. N. (2004). Prophylactic anastomotic drainage for colorectal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (4), CD002100. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002100.pub2

Jeurnink, S. M., Steyerberg, E. W., Hof, G., van Eijck, C. H., Kuipers, E. J., & Siersema, P. D. (2007). Gastrojejunostomy versus stent placement in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction: a comparison in 95 patients. J Surg Oncol, 96(5), 389-396. https://doi.org/10.1002/jso.20828

Jones, O. M., Rees, M., John, T. G., Bygrave, S., & Plant, G. (2005). Biopsy of resectable colorectal liver metastases causes tumour dissemination and adversely affects survival after liver resection. Br J Surg, 92(9), 1165-1168. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.4888

Jones, R. P., Hamann, S., Malik, H. Z., Fenwick, S. W., Poston, G. J., & Folprecht, G. (2014). Defined criteria for resectability improves rates of secondary resection after systemic therapy for liver limited metastatic colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer, 50(9), 1590-1601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2014.02.024

Jonker, F. H., Tanis, P. J., Coene, P. P., & van der Harst, E. (2015). Impact of Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy on Complications After Hartmann Procedure for Rectal Cancer. Dis Colon Rectum, 58(10), 931-937. https://doi.org/10.1097/dcr.0000000000000432

Jorgensen, H., Wetterslev, J., Moiniche, S., & Dahl, J. B. (2000). Epidural local anaesthetics versus opioid-based analgesic regimens on postoperative gastrointestinal paralysis, PONV and pain after abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (4), CD001893. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001893

Joye, I., & Haustermans, K. (2015). Clinical target volume delineation for rectal cancer radiation therapy: time for updated guidelines? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 91(4), 690-691. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.11.006

Kabbinavar, F. F., Hambleton, J., Mass, R. D., Hurwitz, H. I., Bergsland, E., & Sarkar, S. (2005). Combined analysis of efficacy: the addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil/leucovorin improves survival for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol, 23(16), 3706-3712. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.00.232

Kaminski, M. F., Anderson, J., Valori, R., Kraszewska, E., Rupinski, M., Pachlewski, J., . . . Regula, J. (2016). Leadership training to improve adenoma detection rate in screening colonoscopy: a randomised trial. Gut, 65(4), 616-624. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307503

Kaminski, M. F., Regula, J., Kraszewska, E., Polkowski, M., Wojciechowska, U., Didkowska, J., . . . Butruk, E. (2010). Quality indicators for colonoscopy and the risk of interval cancer. N Engl J Med, 362(19), 1795-1803. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0907667

Kanemitsu, Y., Shimizu, Y., Mizusawa, J., Inaba, Y., Hamaguchi, T., Shida, D., . . . Fukuda, H. (2021). Hepatectomy Followed by mFOLFOX6 Versus Hepatectomy Alone for Liver-Only Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (JCOG0603): A Phase II or III Randomized Controlled Trial. J Clin Oncol, 39(34), 3789-3799. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.21.01032

Kansagra, A. J., & Stefan, M. S. (2016). Preoperative Anemia: Evaluation and Treatment. Anesthesiol Clin, 34(1), 127-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anclin.2015.10.011

Karapetis, C. S., Khambata-Ford, S., Jonker, D. J., O'Callaghan, C. J., Tu, D., Tebbutt, N. C., . . . Zalcberg, J. R. (2008). K-ras mutations and benefit from cetuximab in advanced colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med, 359(17), 1757-1765. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0804385

Karliczek, A., Jesus, E. C., Matos, D., Castro, A. A., Atallah, A. N., & Wiggers, T. (2006). Drainage or nondrainage in elective colorectal anastomosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal Dis, 8(4), 259-265. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2006.00999.x

Kaslow, S. R., Gani, F., Alshaikh, H. N., & Canner, J. K. (2018). Clinical outcomes following mechanical plus oral antibiotic bowel preparation versus oral antibiotics alone in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. BJS Open, 2(4), 238-245. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs5.66

Kauer, W. K., Prantl, L., Dittler, H. J., & Siewert, J. R. (2004). The value of endosonographic rectal carcinoma staging in routine diagnostics: a 10-year analysis. Surg Endosc, 18(7), 1075-1078. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-003-9088-7

Kehlet, H., & Wilmore, D. W. (2002). Multimodal strategies to improve surgical outcome. Am J Surg, 183(6), 630-641. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9610(02)00866-8

Kelder, W., Inberg, B., Schaapveld, M., Karrenbeld, A., Grond, J., Wiggers, T., & Plukker, J. T. (2009). Impact of the number of histologically examined lymph nodes on prognosis in colon cancer: a population-based study in the Netherlands. Dis Colon Rectum, 52(2), 260-267. https://doi.org/10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181979164

Kim, J. C., Lee, K. H., Yu, C. S., Kim, H. C., Kim, J. R., Chang, H. M., . . . Kim, T. W. (2004). The clinicopathological significance of inferior mesenteric lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol, 30(3), 271-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2003.12.002

Kim, J. H., Beets, G. L., Kim, M. J., Kessels, A. G., & Beets-Tan, R. G. (2004). High-resolution MR imaging for nodal staging in rectal cancer: are there any criteria in addition to the size? Eur J Radiol, 52(1), 78-83.

Kim, M. J., Jeong, S. Y., Choi, S. J., Ryoo, S. B., Park, J. W., Park, K. J., . . . Park, J. G. (2015). Survival paradox between stage IIB/C (T4N0) and stage IIIA (T1-2N1) colon cancer. Ann Surg Oncol, 22(2), 505-512. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-014-3982-1

Kishi, Y., Zorzi, D., Contreras, C. M., Maru, D. M., Kopetz, S., Ribero, D., . . . Vauthey, J. N. (2010). Extended preoperative chemotherapy does not improve pathologic response and increases postoperative liver insufficiency after hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases. Ann Surg Oncol, 17(11), 2870-2876. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-010-1166-1

Klein, A., Tate, D. J., Jayasekeran, V., Hourigan, L., Singh, R., Brown, G., . . . Bourke, M. J. (2019). Thermal Ablation of Mucosal Defect Margins Reduces Adenoma Recurrence After Colonic Endoscopic Mucosal Resection. Gastroenterology, 156(3), 604-613.e603. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.10.003

Klinger, A. L., Green, H., Monlezun, D. J., Beck, D., Kann, B., Vargas, H. D., . . . Margolin, D. (2019). The Role of Bowel Preparation in Colorectal Surgery: Results of the 2012-2015 ACS-NSQIP Data. Ann Surg, 269(4), 671-677. https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000002568

Ko, S., Jo, H., Yun, S., Park, E., Kim, S., & Seo, H. I. (2014). Comparative analysis of radiofrequency ablation and resection for resectable colorectal liver metastases. World J Gastroenterol, 20(2), 525-531. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i2.525

Kolfschoten, N. E., Wouters, M. W., Gooiker, G. A., Eddes, E. H., Kievit, J., Tollenaar, R. A., & Marang-van de Mheen, P. J. (2012). Nonelective colon cancer resections in elderly patients: results from the dutch surgical colorectal audit. Dig Surg, 29(5), 412-419. https://doi.org/10.1159/000345614

Koopman, M., Antonini, N. F., Douma, J., Wals, J., Honkoop, A. H., Erdkamp, F. L., . . . Punt, C. J. (2007). Sequential versus combination chemotherapy with capecitabine, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin in advanced colorectal cancer (CAIRO): a phase III randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 370(9582), 135-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61086-1

Kopetz, S., Grothey, A., Yaeger, R., Van Cutsem, E., Desai, J., Yoshino, T., . . . Tabernero, J. (2019). Encorafenib, Binimetinib, and Cetuximab in BRAF V600E-Mutated Colorectal Cancer. N Engl J Med, 381(17), 1632-1643. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1908075

Koren, R., Siegal, A., Klein, B., Halpern, M., Kyzer, S., Veltman, V., & Gal, R. (1997). Lymph node-revealing solution: simple new method for detecting minute lymph nodes in colon carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum, 40(4), 407-410. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02258384

Korner, H., Soreide, K., Stokkeland, P. J., & Soreide, J. A. (2005). Systematic follow-up after curative surgery for colorectal cancer in Norway: a population-based audit of effectiveness, costs, and compliance. J Gastrointest Surg, 9(3), 320-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gassur.2004.09.023

Koroulakis, A., Molitoris, J., Kaiser, A., Hanna, N., Bafford, A., Jiang, Y., . . . Regine, W. F. (2021). Reirradiation for Rectal Cancer Using Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy: A Single Institutional Experience. Adv Radiat Oncol, 6(1), 100595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2020.10.008

Koruth, N. M., Hunter, D. C., Krukowski, Z. H., & Matheson, N. A. (1985). Immediate resection in emergency large bowel surgery: a 7 year audit. Br J Surg, 72(9), 703-707. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.1800720910

Koskenvuo, L., Lehtonen, T., Koskensalo, S., Rasilainen, S., Klintrup, K., Ehrlich, A., . . . Sallinen, V. (2019). Mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation versus no bowel preparation for elective colectomy (MOBILE): a multicentre, randomised, parallel, single-blinded trial. Lancet, 394(10201), 840-848. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(19)31269-3

Kozloff, M., Yood, M. U., Berlin, J., Flynn, P. J., Kabbinavar, F. F., Purdie, D. M., . . . Grothey, A. (2009). Clinical outcomes associated with bevacizumab-containing treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: the BRiTE observational cohort study. Oncologist, 14(9), 862-870. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2009-0071

Kozloff, M., Yood, M. U., Berlin, J., Flynn, P. J., Kabbinavar, F. F., Purdie, D. M., . . . Investigators of the, B. s. (2009). Clinical outcomes associated with bevacizumab-containing treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: the BRiTE observational cohort study. Oncologist, 14(9), 862-870. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2009-0071

Kranke, P., & Eberhart, L. H. (2011). Possibilities and limitations in the pharmacological management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Eur J Anaesthesiol, 28(11), 758-765. https://doi.org/10.1097/EJA.0b013e32834a4e1e

Kreftregisteret. (07.12.2009). [nettside]. Oslo: Kreftregisteret. Hentet 03.11.2009, fra http://www.kreftregisteret.no/

Krokstad, S., Ding, D., Grunseit, A. C., Sund, E. R., Holmen, T. L., Rangul, V., & Bauman, A. (2017). Multiple lifestyle behaviours and mortality, findings from a large population-based Norwegian cohort study - The HUNT Study. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 58. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3993-x

Krook, J. E., Moertel, C. G., Gunderson, L. L., Wieand, H. S., Collins, R. T., Beart, R. W., . . . et al. (1991). Effective surgical adjuvant therapy for high-risk rectal carcinoma. N Engl J Med, 324(11), 709-715. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199103143241101

Ku, G. Y., Haaland, B. A., & de Lima Lopes, G., Jr. (2012). Cetuximab in the first-line treatment of K-ras wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer: the choice and schedule of fluoropyrimidine matters. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology, 70(2), 231-238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00280-012-1898-7

Kuhry, E., Bonjer, H. J., Haglind, E., Hop, W. C., Veldkamp, R., Cuesta, M. A., . . . Group, C. S. (2005). Impact of hospital case volume on short-term outcome after laparoscopic operation for colonic cancer. Surg Endosc, 19(5), 687-692. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-004-8920-z

Kuhry, E., Schwenk, W. F., Gaupset, R., Romild, U., & Bonjer, H. J. (2008). Long-term results of laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2), CD003432. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003432.pub2

Kumar, A., Peixoto, R. D., Kennecke, H. F., Renouf, D. J., Lim, H. J., Gill, S., . . . Cheung, W. Y. (2015). Effect of Adjuvant FOLFOX Chemotherapy Duration on Outcomes of Patients With Stage III Colon Cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer, 14(4), 262-268.e261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clcc.2015.05.010

Kusters, M., Beets, G. L., van de Velde, C. J., Beets-Tan, R. G., Marijnen, C. A., Rutten, H. J., . . . Moriya, Y. (2009). A comparison between the treatment of low rectal cancer in Japan and the Netherlands, focusing on the patterns of local recurrence. Ann Surg, 249(2), 229-235. https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e318190a664

Kusters, M., Marijnen, C. A., van de Velde, C. J., Rutten, H. J., Lahaye, M. J., Kim, J. H., . . . Beets, G. L. (2010). Patterns of local recurrence in rectal cancer; a study of the Dutch TME trial. Eur J Surg Oncol, 36(5), 470-476. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2009.11.011

Lafaro, K. J., Roumanis, P., Demirjian, A. N., Lall, C., & Imagawa, D. K. (2013). Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI for Detection of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: A Surgeon's Perspective! Int J Hepatol, 2013, 572307. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/572307

Laine, L., Kaltenbach, T., Barkun, A., McQuaid, K. R., Subramanian, V., & Soetikno, R. (2015). SCENIC international consensus statement on surveillance and management of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastrointest Endosc, 81(3), 489-501.e426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2014.12.009

Lakatos, L., Mester, G., Erdelyi, Z., David, G., Pandur, T., Balogh, M., . . . Lakatos, P. L. (2006). Risk factors for ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer in a Hungarian cohort of patients with ulcerative colitis: results of a population-based study. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 12(3), 205-211. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000217770.21261.ce

Land, S. R., Kopec, J. A., Cecchini, R. S., Ganz, P. A., Wieand, H. S., Colangelo, L. H., . . . Wolmark, N. (2007). Neurotoxicity from oxaliplatin combined with weekly bolus fluorouracil and leucovorin as surgical adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II and III colon cancer: NSABP C-07. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25(16), 2205-2211. https://doi.org/10.1200/Jco.2006.08.6652

Lange, M. M., Buunen, M., van de Velde, C. J., & Lange, J. F. (2008). Level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery: low tie preferred over high tie. A review. Dis Colon Rectum, 51(7), 1139-1145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10350-008-9328-y

Larsen, I. K., & Myklebust, T. Å. (2019). Risiko for kreft etter inntekt, utdanning og landbakgrunn. I: E. Vinberg, L. R. A. Karlsson, B. Møller, G. Ursin, & I. K. Larsen (red.), Sosial ulikhet, innvandring og kreft: en rapport om kreftforekomst etter landbakgrunn, utdanning, inntekt og bosted (s. 24-40). Oslo: Cancer Registry of Norway. Hentet fra https://www.kreftregisteret.no/globalassets/cancer-in-norway/2018/special-issue-2018/cin_special_issue.pdf

Larsen, S. G., Wiig, J. N., Emblemsvaag, H. L., Groholt, K. K., Hole, K. H., Bentsen, A., . . . Giercksky, K. E. (2009). Extended total mesorectal excision in locally advanced rectal cancer (T4a) and the clinical role of MRI-evaluated neo-adjuvant downstaging. Colorectal Dis, 11(7), 759-767. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2008.01649.x

Larsen, S. G., Wiig, J. N., & Giercksky, K. E. (2005). Hydronephrosis as a prognostic factor in pelvic recurrence from rectal and colon carcinomas. American Journal of Surgery, 190(1), 55-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2004.07.043

Larønningen, S., Ferlay, J., Bray, F., Engholm, G., Ervik, M., Gulbrandsen, J., . . . Storm, H. H. (01. mars 2021). NORDCAN: Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Prevalence and Survival in the Nordic Countries, Version 9.0. [nettressurs]. [s.l.]: Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries. Hentet 27. september 2021, fra https://nordcan.iarc.fr/

Lassen, K., Hannemann, P., Ljungqvist, O., Fearon, K., Dejong, C. H., von Meyenfeldt, M. F., . . . Enhanced Recovery After Surgery, G. (2005). Patterns in current perioperative practice: survey of colorectal surgeons in five northern European countries. BMJ, 330(7505), 1420-1421. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38478.568067.AE

Lassen, K., & Nymo, L. (2019). Norsk register for gastrokirurgi-NoRGast: årsrapport for 2018 med plan for forbedringstiltak. Tromsø: Norsk register for gastrokirurgi. Hentet fra https://unn.no/Documents/Kvalitetsregistre/Norsk%20Register%20for%20Gastrokirurgi/%C3%85rsrapporter/%C3%85rsrapport%20NoRGast_2018.pdf

Lassen, K., Soop, M., Nygren, J., Cox, P. B., Hendry, P. O., Spies, C., . . . Enhanced Recovery After Surgery, G. (2009). Consensus review of optimal perioperative care in colorectal surgery: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Group recommendations. Arch Surg, 144(10), 961-969. https://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.2009.170

Le, D. T., Durham, J. N., Smith, K. N., Wang, H., Bartlett, B. R., Aulakh, L. K., . . . Diaz, L. A., Jr. (2017). Mismatch repair deficiency predicts response of solid tumors to PD-1 blockade. Science, 357(6349), 409-413. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan6733

Le, D. T., Uram, J. N., Wang, H., Bartlett, B. R., Kemberling, H., Eyring, A. D., . . . Diaz, L. A., Jr. (2015). PD-1 Blockade in Tumors with Mismatch-Repair Deficiency. N Engl J Med, 372(26), 2509-2520. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1500596

Le Voyer, T. E., Sigurdson, E. R., Hanlon, A. L., Mayer, R. J., Macdonald, J. S., Catalano, P. J., & Haller, D. G. (2003). Colon cancer survival is associated with increasing number of lymph nodes analyzed: a secondary survey of intergroup trial INT-0089. J Clin Oncol, 21(15), 2912-2919.

Lee, D. J., Sagar, P. M., Sadadcharam, G., & Tan, K. Y. (2017). Advances in surgical management for locally recurrent rectal cancer: How far have we come? World J Gastroenterol, 23(23), 4170-4180. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v23.i23.4170

Lee, S., Woo, C. G., Lee, H. J., Kim, K. J., Ye, B. D., Byeon, J. S., . . . Yang, D. H. (2015). Effectiveness of adjuvant radiotherapy after local excision of rectal cancer with deep submucosal invasion: a single-hospital, case-control analysis. Surg Endosc, 29(11), 3231-3238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-015-4065-5

Lee, T. J., Nickerson, C., Goddard, A. F., Rees, C. J., McNally, R. J., & Rutter, M. D. (2013). Outcome of 12-month surveillance colonoscopy in high-risk patients in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme. Colorectal Dis, 15(8), e435-442. https://doi.org/10.1111/codi.12278

Lee, Y. M., Law, W. L., Chu, K. W., & Poon, R. T. P. (2001). Emergency surgery for obstructing colorectal cancers: A comparison between right-sided and left-sided lesions. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 192(6), 719-725. https://doi.org/Doi 10.1016/S1072-7515(01)00833-X

Leggett, B., & Whitehall, V. (2010). Role of the serrated pathway in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Gastroenterology, 138(6), 2088-2100. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2009.12.066

Leighl, N. B., Bennouna, J., Yi, J., Moore, N., Hambleton, J., & Hurwitz, H. (2011). Bleeding events in bevacizumab-treated cancer patients who received full-dose anticoagulation and remained on study. Br J Cancer, 104(3), 413-418. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6606074

Lembersky, B. C., Wieand, H. S., Petrelli, N. J., O'Connell, M. J., Colangelo, L. H., Smith, R. E., . . . Wolmark, N. (2006). Oral uracil and tegafur plus leucovorin compared with intravenous fluorouracil and leucovorin in stage II and III carcinoma of the colon: results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol C-06. J Clin Oncol, 24(13), 2059-2064. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.04.7498

Lemery, S., Keegan, P., & Pazdur, R. (2017). First FDA Approval Agnostic of Cancer Site - When a Biomarker Defines the Indication. N Engl J Med, 377(15), 1409-1412. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1709968

Lemmens, V. E., Klaver, Y. L., Verwaal, V. J., Rutten, H. J., Coebergh, J. W., & de Hingh, I. H. (2011). Predictors and survival of synchronous peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin: a population-based study. Int J Cancer, 128(11), 2717-2725. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25596

Lenz, H. J., Van Cutsem, E., Luisa Limon, M., Wong, K. Y. M., Hendlisz, A., Aglietta, M., . . . Lonardi, S. (2022). First-Line Nivolumab Plus Low-Dose Ipilimumab for Microsatellite Instability-High/Mismatch Repair-Deficient Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The Phase II CheckMate 142 Study. J Clin Oncol, 40(2), 161-170. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.21.01015

Leo, S., Accettura, C., Gnoni, A., Licchetta, A., Giampaglia, M., Mauro, A., . . . Carr, B. I. (2013). Systemic treatment of gastrointestinal cancer in elderly patients. J Gastrointest Cancer, 44(1), 22-32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12029-012-9447-5

Leufkens, A. M., van den Bosch, M. A., van Leeuwen, M. S., & Siersema, P. D. (2011). Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography for colon cancer staging: a systematic review. Scand J Gastroenterol, 46(7-8), 887-894. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2011.574732

Lev-Chelouche, D., Keidar, A., Rub, R., Matzkin, H., & Gutman, M. (2001). Hydronephrosis associated with colorectal carcinoma: treatment and outcome. Eur J Surg Oncol, 27(5), 482-486. https://doi.org/10.1053/ejso.2001.1143

Lewis, S. J., Egger, M., Sylvester, P. A., & Thomas, S. (2001). Early enteral feeding versus "nil by mouth" after gastrointestinal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. British Medical Journal, 323(7316), 773-776. https://doi.org/DOI 10.1136/bmj.323.7316.773

Lievre, A., Bachet, J. B., Boige, V., Cayre, A., Le Corre, D., Buc, E., . . . Laurent-Puig, P. (2008). KRAS mutations as an independent prognostic factor in patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26(3), 374-379. https://doi.org/10.1200/Jco.2007.12.5906

Ljungqvist, O. (2014). ERAS--enhanced recovery after surgery: moving evidence-based perioperative care to practice. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 38(5), 559-566. https://doi.org/10.1177/0148607114523451

Lobo, D. N., Bostock, K. A., Neal, K. R., Perkins, A. C., Rowlands, B. J., & Allison, S. P. (2002). Effect of salt and water balance on recovery of gastrointestinal function after elective colonic resection: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 359(9320), 1812-1818. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08711-1

Lodeweges, J. E., Klinkenberg, T. J., Ubbels, J. F., Groen, H. J. M., Langendijk, J. A., & Widder, J. (2017). Long-term Outcome of Surgery or Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Lung Oligometastases. J Thorac Oncol, 12(9), 1442-1445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2017.05.015

Loeve, F., Boer, R., Zauber, A. G., Van Ballegooijen, M., Van Oortmarssen, G. J., Winawer, S. J., & Habbema, J. D. (2004). National Polyp Study data: evidence for regression of adenomas. Int J Cancer, 111(4), 633-639. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.20277

Lopez, M. J., Kraybill, W. G., Downey, R. S., Johnston, W. D., & Bricker, E. M. (1987). Exenterative surgery for locally advanced rectosigmoid cancers. Is it worthwhile? Surgery, 102(4), 644-651.

Loupakis, F., Cremolini, C., Masi, G., Lonardi, S., Zagonel, V., Salvatore, L., . . . Falcone, A. (2014). Initial therapy with FOLFOXIRI and bevacizumab for metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med, 371(17), 1609-1618. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1403108

Loupakis, F., Cremolini, C., Salvatore, L., Masi, G., Sensi, E., Schirripa, M., . . . Falcone, A. (2014). FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab as first-line treatment in BRAF mutant metastatic colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer, 50(1), 57-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2013.08.024

Loupakis, F., Maddalena, G., Depetris, I., Murgioni, S., Bergamo, F., Dei Tos, A. P., . . . Fassan, M. (2019). Treatment with checkpoint inhibitors in a metastatic colorectal cancer patient with molecular and immunohistochemical heterogeneity in MSI/dMMR status. J Immunother Cancer, 7(1), 297. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40425-019-0788-5

Lov om humanmedisinsk bruk av bioteknologi m.m. (bioteknologiloven). LOV-2003-12-05-100.  Hentet fra http://lovdata.no/all/hl-20031205-100.html

Lov om kommunale helse- og omsorgstjenester m.m. (helse- og omsorgstjenesteloven). LOV-2011-06-24-30.

Lowery, J. T., Ahnen, D. J., Schroy, P. C., 3rd, Hampel, H., Baxter, N., Boland, C. R., . . . Smith, R. (2016). Understanding the contribution of family history to colorectal cancer risk and its clinical implications: A state-of-the-science review. Cancer, 122(17), 2633-2645. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30080

Lugli, A., Kirsch, R., Ajioka, Y., Bosman, F., Cathomas, G., Dawson, H., . . . Quirke, P. (2017). Recommendations for reporting tumor budding in colorectal cancer based on the International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference (ITBCC) 2016. Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc, 30(9), 1299-1311. https://doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2017.46

Lund, M., Trads, M., Njor, S. H., Erichsen, R., & Andersen, B. (2019). Quality indicators for screening colonoscopy and colonoscopist performance and the subsequent risk of interval colorectal cancer: a systematic review. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep, 17(11), 2265-2300. https://doi.org/10.11124/jbisrir-2017-003927

Macbeth, F., & Treasure, T. (2016). Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for 'Oligometastases': a Treatment in Search of Evidence. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol), 28(8), 501-502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2015.12.025

MacDermid, E., Hooton, G., MacDonald, M., McKay, G., Grose, D., Mohammed, N., & Porteous, C. (2009). Improving patient survival with the colorectal cancer multi-disciplinary team. Colorectal Dis, 11(3), 291-295. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2008.01580.x

Maessen, J., Dejong, C. H., Hausel, J., Nygren, J., Lassen, K., Andersen, J., . . . von Meyenfeldt, M. F. (2007). A protocol is not enough to implement an enhanced recovery programme for colorectal resection. Br J Surg, 94(2), 224-231.

Magro, F., Gionchetti, P., Eliakim, R., Ardizzone, S., Armuzzi, A., Barreiro-de Acosta, M., . . . Rieder, F. (2017). Third European Evidence-based Consensus on Diagnosis and Management of Ulcerative Colitis. Part 1: Definitions, Diagnosis, Extra-intestinal Manifestations, Pregnancy, Cancer Surveillance, Surgery, and Ileo-anal Pouch Disorders. J Crohns Colitis, 11(6), 649-670. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjx008

Majumdar, S. R., Fletcher, R. H., & Evans, A. T. (1999). How does colorectal cancer present? Symptoms, duration, and clues to location. Am J Gastroenterol, 94(10), 3039-3045.

Mandava, N., Kumar, S., Pizzi, W. F., & Aprile, I. J. (1996). Perforated colorectal carcinomas. Am J Surg, 172(3), 236-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9610(96)00164-x

Mariathasan, A. B., Boye, K., Dueland, S., Flatmark, K., & Larsen, S. G. (2021). Metastases in locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing curatively intended treatment. Eur J Surg Oncol, 47(9), 2377-2383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2021.04.023

Mariathasan, A. B., Boye, K., Giercksky, K. E., Brennhovd, B., Gullestad, H. P., Emblemsvåg, H. L., . . . Larsen, S. G. (2018). Beyond total mesorectal excision in locally advanced rectal cancer with organ or pelvic side-wall involvement. Eur J Surg Oncol, 44(8), 1226-1232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2018.03.029

Maroney, S., de Paz, C. C., Reeves, M. E., Garberoglio, C., Raskin, E., Senthil, M., . . . Solomon, N. (2018). Benefit of Surgical Resection of the Primary Tumor in Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy for Stage IV Colorectal Cancer with Unresected Metastasis. J Gastrointest Surg, 22(3), 460-466. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11605-017-3617-5

Marret, E., Remy, C., Bonnet, F., & Postoperative Pain Forum, G. (2007). Meta-analysis of epidural analgesia versus parenteral opioid analgesia after colorectal surgery. Br J Surg, 94(6), 665-673. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.5825

Martel, G., Crawford, A., Barkun, J. S., Boushey, R. P., Ramsay, C. R., & Fergusson, D. A. (2012). Expert opinion on laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer parallels evidence from a cumulative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One, 7(4), e35292. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035292

Martinez-Perez, A., Carra, M. C., Brunetti, F., & de'Angelis, N. (2017). Pathologic Outcomes of Laparoscopic vs Open Mesorectal Excision for Rectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Surg, 152(4), e165665. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2016.5665

Masi, G., Loupakis, F., Salvatore, L., Fornaro, L., Cremolini, C., Cupini, S., . . . Falcone, A. (2010). Bevacizumab with FOLFOXIRI (irinotecan, oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and folinate) as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: a phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol, 11(9), 845-852. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(10)70175-3

Matthiessen, P., Hallbook, O., Rutegard, J., & Sjodahl, R. (2006). Population-based study of risk factors for postoperative death after anterior resection of the rectum. Br J Surg, 93(4), 498-503. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.5282

Matthiessen, P., Hallböök, O., Rutegård, J., Simert, G., & Sjödahl, R. (2007). Defunctioning stoma reduces symptomatic anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection of the rectum for cancer: a randomized multicenter trial. Ann Surg, 246(2), 207-214. https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e3180603024

Maughan, T. S., Adams, R. A., Smith, C. G., Meade, A. M., Seymour, M. T., Wilson, R. H., . . . Investigators, M. C. T. (2011). Addition of cetuximab to oxaliplatin-based first-line combination chemotherapy for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: results of the randomised phase 3 MRC COIN trial. Lancet, 377(9783), 2103-2114. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60613-2

Maughan, T. S., James, R. D., Kerr, D. J., Ledermann, J. A., Seymour, M. T., Topham, C., . . . Medical Research Council Colorectal Cancer, G. (2003). Comparison of intermittent and continuous palliative chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer: a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet, 361(9356), 457-464. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(03)12461-0

Mayer, R. J., Van Cutsem, E., Falcone, A., Yoshino, T., Garcia-Carbonero, R., Mizunuma, N., . . . Ohtsu, A. (2015). Randomized trial of TAS-102 for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med, 372(20), 1909-1919. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1414325

McArdle, C. S., & Hole, D. J. (2004). Emergency presentation of colorectal cancer is associated with poor 5-year survival. British Journal of Surgery, 91(5), 605-609. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.4456

McClelland, D., & Murray, G. I. (2015). A Comprehensive Study of Extramural Venous Invasion in Colorectal Cancer. PLoS One, 10(12), e0144987. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144987

McCormack, P. M., Burt, M. E., Bains, M. S., Martini, N., Rusch, V. W., & Ginsberg, R. J. (1992). Lung resection for colorectal metastases. 10-year results. Arch Surg, 127(12), 1403-1406. https://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1992.01420120037006

McGory, M. L., Maggard, M. A., Kang, H., O'Connell, J. B., & Ko, C. Y. (2005). Malignancies of the appendix: beyond case series reports. Dis Colon Rectum, 48(12), 2264-2271. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10350-005-0196-4

McPhail, M. J., Abu-Hilal, M., & Johnson, C. D. (2006). A meta-analysis comparing suprapubic and transurethral catheterization for bladder drainage after abdominal surgery. Br J Surg, 93(9), 1038-1044. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.5424

McSorley, S. T., Steele, C. W., & McMahon, A. J. (2018). Meta-analysis of oral antibiotics, in combination with preoperative intravenous antibiotics and mechanical bowel preparation the day before surgery, compared with intravenous antibiotics and mechanical bowel preparation alone to reduce surgical-site infections in elective colorectal surgery. BJS Open, 2(4), 185-194. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs5.68

MERCURY Study Group. (2006). Diagnostic accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging in predicting curative resection of rectal cancer: prospective observational study. BMJ, 333(7572), 779.

Merok, M. A., Ahlquist, T., Royrvik, E. C., Tufteland, K. F., Hektoen, M., Sjo, O. H., . . . Nesbakken, A. (2013). Microsatellite instability has a positive prognostic impact on stage II colorectal cancer after complete resection: results from a large, consecutive Norwegian series. Ann Oncol, 24(5), 1274-1282. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mds614

Mesher, D., Dove-Edwin, I., Sasieni, P., Vasen, H., Bernstein, I., Royer-Pokora, B., . . . Thomas, H. (2014). A pooled analysis of the outcome of prospective colonoscopic surveillance for familial colorectal cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 134(4), 939-947. https://doi.org/doi:10.1002/ijc.28397

Meulendijks, D., Henricks, L. M., Sonke, G. S., Deenen, M. J., Froehlich, T. K., Amstutz, U., . . . Schellens, J. H. (2015). Clinical relevance of DPYD variants c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and c.1601G>A as predictors of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Oncol, 16(16), 1639-1650. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(15)00286-7

Meyer, L., & Pothuri, B. (2006). Decompressive percutaneous gastrostomy tube use in gynecologic malignancies. Curr Treat Options Oncol, 7(2), 111-120.

Milne, T., Solomon, M. J., Lee, P., Young, J. M., Stalley, P., & Harrison, J. D. (2013). Assessing the impact of a sacral resection on morbidity and survival after extended radical surgery for locally recurrent rectal cancer. Ann Surg, 258(6), 1007-1013. https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e318283a5b6

Modest, D. P., Martens, U. M., Riera-Knorrenschild, J., Greeve, J., Florschütz, A., Wessendorf, S., . . . Geissler, M. (2019). FOLFOXIRI Plus Panitumumab As First-Line Treatment of RAS Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The Randomized, Open-Label, Phase II VOLFI Study (AIO KRK0109). J Clin Oncol, 37(35), 3401-3411. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.19.01340

Mohiuddin, M., Marks, G., & Marks, J. (2002). Long-term results of reirradiation for patients with recurrent rectal carcinoma. Cancer, 95(5), 1144-1150. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.10799

Moran, B., Baratti, D., Yan, T. D., Kusamura, S., & Deraco, M. (2008). Consensus statement on the loco-regional treatment of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms with peritoneal dissemination (pseudomyxoma peritonei). J Surg Oncol, 98(4), 277-282. https://doi.org/10.1002/jso.21054

Morino, M., Allaix, M. E., Arolfo, S., & Arezzo, A. (2013). Previous transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal cancer represents a risk factor for an increased abdominoperineal resection rate. Surg Endosc, 27(9), 3315-3321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-013-2911-x

Moriya, Y., Hojo, K., Sawada, T., & Koyama, Y. (1989). Significance of Lateral Node Dissection for Advanced Rectal-Carcinoma at or Below the Peritoneal Reflection. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 32(4), 307-315. https://doi.org/Doi 10.1007/Bf02553486

Moss, A., Williams, S. J., Hourigan, L. F., Brown, G., Tam, W., Singh, R., . . . Bourke, M. J. (2015). Long-term adenoma recurrence following wide-field endoscopic mucosal resection (WF-EMR) for advanced colonic mucosal neoplasia is infrequent: results and risk factors in 1000 cases from the Australian Colonic EMR (ACE) study. Gut, 64(1), 57-65. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305516

Moss, A. C., Morris, E., & Mac, M. P. (2006). Palliative biliary stents for obstructing pancreatic carcinoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2), CD004200.

Muhi, A., Ichikawa, T., Motosugi, U., Sou, H., Nakajima, H., Sano, K., . . . Araki, T. (2011). Diagnosis of colorectal hepatic metastases: comparison of contrast-enhanced CT, contrast-enhanced US, superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI, and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging, 34(2), 326-335. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.22613

Munkedal, D. L., Laurberg, S., Hagemann-Madsen, R., Stribolt, K. J., Krag, S. R., Quirke, P., & West, N. P. (2016). Significant Individual Variation Between Pathologists in the Evaluation of Colon Cancer Specimens After Complete Mesocolic Excision. Dis Colon Rectum, 59(10), 953-961. https://doi.org/10.1097/dcr.0000000000000671

Muto, T., Sawada, T., & Sugihara, K. (1991). Treatment of carcinoma in adenomas. World J Surg, 15(1), 35-40. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01658958

Møller, P., Seppälä, T., Bernstein, I., Holinski-Feder, E., Sala, P., Evans, D. G., . . . Moslein, G. (2017). Cancer incidence and survival in Lynch syndrome patients receiving colonoscopic and gynaecological surveillance: first report from the prospective Lynch syndrome database. Gut, 66(3), 464-472. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309675

Møller, P., Stormorken, A., & Apold, J. (2006). Arvelig tarmkreft. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen, 126(15), 1937-1939.

Nagtegaal, I. D., Marijnen, C. A., Kranenbarg, E. K., van de Velde, C. J., van Krieken, J. H., Pathology Review, C., & Cooperative Clinical, I. (2002). Circumferential margin involvement is still an important predictor of local recurrence in rectal carcinoma: not one millimeter but two millimeters is the limit. The American journal of surgical pathology, 26(3), 350-357. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000478-200203000-00009

Nagtegaal, I. D., & Quirke, P. (2008). What is the role for the circumferential margin in the modern treatment of rectal cancer? J Clin Oncol, 26(2), 303-312.

Nagtegaal, I. D., & van Krieken, J. H. (2002). The role of pathologists in the quality control of diagnosis and treatment of rectal cancer-an overview. Eur J Cancer, 38(7), 964-972. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0959-8049(02)00056-4

Nakadoi, K., Tanaka, S., Kanao, H., Terasaki, M., Takata, S., Oka, S., . . . Chayama, K. (2012). Management of T1 colorectal carcinoma with special reference to criteria for curative endoscopic resection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 27(6), 1057-1062. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2011.07041.x

Nasjonal helseplan (2007-2010). Særtrykk av St.prp. nr.1 (2006-2007) kapittel 6. (2009). Oslo: Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet. Hentet fra http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/HOD/Sykehus/Nasjonal_helseplan_Sartrykk.pdf

Nasjonalt handlingsprogram for diagnosikk og behandling av kreft i tykk- og endetarm. (2019). (IS-2790). Oslo: Helsedirektoratet. Hentet fra https://helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/nasjonalt-handlingsprogram-med-retningslinjer-for-diagnostikk-behandling-og-oppfolging-av-kreft-i-tykktarm-og-endetarm

Nasjonalt handlingsprogram med retningslinjer for palliasjon i kreftomsorgen. (2019). (rev utg.). (IS-2800). Oslo: Helsedirektoratet. Hentet fra https://www.helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/palliasjon-i-kreftomsorgen-handlingsprogram

Nasjonalt kvalitetsregister for tykk- og endetarmskreft. (2016). Årsrapport 2015. Oslo: Kreftregisteret. Hentet fra https://www.kreftregisteret.no/globalassets/publikasjoner-og-rapporter/arsrapporter/publisert-2016/arsrapport-2015-tykk--og-endetarmskreft.pdf

Nasjonalt kvalitetsregister for tykk- og endetarmskreft. (2021). Årsrapport 2020: resultater og forbedringstiltak fra nasjonalt kvalitetsregister for tykk- og endetarmskreft. Oslo: Kreftregisteret. Hentet fra https://www.kreftregisteret.no/globalassets/publikasjoner-og-rapporter/arsrapporter/publisert-2021/arsrapport-nasjonalt-kvalitetsregister-for-tykk--og-endetarmskreft-2020.pdf

Nasjonalt screeningprogram mot tarmkreft: status og anbefalinger. (2017). Oslo: Helsedirektoratet. Hentet fra https://helsedirektoratet.no/Documents/Rapport%20om%20et%20Nasjonalt%20screeningprogram%20mot%20tarmkreft.pdf

Nationella riktlinjer för kolorektalcancersjukvård: medicinskt och hälsoekonomiskt faktadokument. (2007). Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen. Hentet fra http://www.socialstyrelsen.se/Lists/Artikelkatalog/Attachments/8944/2007-102-3_20071024.pdf

Nationellt vårdprogram tjock- och ändtarmscancer. (2020). (2. utg.). Stockholm: Regionalt cancercentrum. Hentet fra https://kunskapsbanken.cancercentrum.se/diagnoser/tjock-och-andtarmscancer/vardprogram/

NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). (2009).Fort Washington, PA: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Hentet 2009, fra http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp (krever registrering)

Nelson, R., Edwards, S., & Tse, B. (2007). Prophylactic nasogastric decompression after abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (3), CD004929. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004929.pub3

Nelson, R. L., Gladman, E., & Barbateskovic, M. (2014). Antimicrobial prophylaxis for colorectal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (5), CD001181. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001181.pub4

Nelson, R. L., Glenny, A. M., & Song, F. (2009). Antimicrobial prophylaxis for colorectal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (1), CD001181. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001181.pub3

Neri, E., Halligan, S., Hellstrom, M., Lefere, P., Mang, T., Regge, D., . . . Laghi, A. (2013). The second ESGAR consensus statement on CT colonography. Eur Radiol, 23(3), 720-729. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-012-2632-x

Nesbakken, A., & Gaard, M. (2007). Kirurgisk behandling av tykktarmskreft (Surgical treatment of colon cancer). Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen, 127(22), 2942-2945.

Netzer, P., Forster, C., Biral, R., Ruchti, C., Neuweiler, J., Stauffer, E., . . . Schmassmann, A. (1998). Risk factor assessment of endoscopically removed malignant colorectal polyps. Gut, 43(5), 669-674. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.43.5.669

Neugut, A. I., Matasar, M., Wang, X., McBride, R., Jacobson, J. S., Tsai, W. Y., . . . Hershman, D. L. (2006). Duration of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer and survival among the elderly. J Clin Oncol, 24(15), 2368-2375. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2005.04.5005

Newell, K. J., Sawka, B. W., Rudrick, B. F., & Driman, D. K. (2001). GEWF solution. Arch Pathol Lab Med, 125(5), 642-645. https://doi.org/10.5858/2001-125-0642-GS

Ng, M. K., Leong, T., Heriot, A. G., & Ngan, S. Y. (2013). Once-daily reirradiation for rectal cancer in patients who have received previous pelvic radiotherapy. Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology, 57(4), 512-518. https://doi.org/10.1111/1754-9485.12057

Ng, S. S., Lee, J. F., Yiu, R. Y., Li, J. C., Hon, S. S., Mak, T. W., . . . Leung, K. L. (2014). Long-term Oncologic Outcomes of Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Rectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 3 Randomized Controlled Trials. Ann Surg, 259(1), 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e31828fe119

Nieder, C., Pawinski, A., & Balteskard, L. (2009). Colorectal cancer metastatic to the brain: time trends in presentation and outcome. Oncology, 76(5), 369-374. https://doi.org/10.1159/000210026

Nielsen, M., Hes, F. J., Nagengast, F. M., Weiss, M. M., Mathus-Vliegen, E. M., Morreau, H., . . . Vasen, H. F. (2007). Germline mutations in APC and MUTYH are responsible for the majority of families with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis. Clin Genet, 71(5), 427-433. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-0004.2007.00766.x

Nielsen, M., Rasmussen, P., Pedersen, B., Hagemann-Madsen, R., Lindegaard, J., & Laurberg, S. (2015). Early and Late Outcomes of Surgery for Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer: A Prospective 10-Year Study in the Total Mesorectal Excision Era. Ann Surg Oncol, 22(8), 2677-2684. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-014-4317-y

Nilsson, P. J., van Etten, B., Hospers, G. A., Påhlman, L., van de Velde, C. J., Beets-Tan, R. G., . . . Glimelius, B. (2013). Short-course radiotherapy followed by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer--the RAPIDO trial. BMC Cancer, 13, 279. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-13-279

Nitsche, U., Stöß, C., Stecher, L., Wilhelm, D., Friess, H., & Ceyhan, G. O. (2018). Meta-analysis of outcomes following resection of the primary tumour in patients presenting with metastatic colorectal cancer. Br J Surg, 105(7), 784-796. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.10682

Nivatvongs, S., Rojanasakul, A., Reiman, H. M., Dozois, R. R., Wolff, B. G., Pemberton, J. H., . . . Jacques, L. F. (1991). The risk of lymph node metastasis in colorectal polyps with invasive adenocarcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum, 34(4), 323-328. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02050592

Noblett, S. E., Snowden, C. P., Shenton, B. K., & Horgan, A. F. (2006). Randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of Doppler-optimized fluid management on outcome after elective colorectal resection. Br J Surg, 93(9), 1069-1076. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.5454

Nordic Gastrointestinal Tumor Adjuvant Therapy Group. (1992). Expectancy or primary chemotherapy in patients with advanced asymptomatic colorectal cancer: a randomized trial. J Clin Oncol, 10(6), 904-911. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.1992.10.6.904

Nordlinger, B., Sorbye, H., Glimelius, B., Poston, G. J., Schlag, P. M., Rougier, P., . . . Federation Francophone de Cancerologie, D. (2008). Perioperative chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 and surgery versus surgery alone for resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer (EORTC Intergroup trial 40983): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 371(9617), 1007-1016. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60455-9

Nordlinger, B., Sorbye, H., Glimelius, B., Poston, G. J., Schlag, P. M., Rougier, P., . . . Gruenberger, T. (2013). Perioperative FOLFOX4 chemotherapy and surgery versus surgery alone for resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer (EORTC 40983): long-term results of a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol, 14(12), 1208-1215. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(13)70447-9

Nygren, J., Thacker, J., Carli, F., Fearon, K. C., Norderval, S., Lobo, D. N., . . . Enhanced Recovery After Surgery, S. (2012). Guidelines for perioperative care in elective rectal/pelvic surgery: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS(R)) Society recommendations. Clin Nutr, 31(6), 801-816. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2012.08.012

O'Connell, M. J., Mailliard, J. A., Kahn, M. J., Macdonald, J. S., Haller, D. G., Mayer, R. J., & Wieand, H. S. (1997). Controlled trial of fluorouracil and low-dose leucovorin given for 6 months as postoperative adjuvant therapy for colon cancer. J Clin Oncol, 15(1), 246-250.

Oien, K., Forsmo, H. M., Rösler, C., Nylund, K., Waage, J. E., & Pfeffer, F. (2019). Endorectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for staging of early rectal cancers: how well does it work in practice? Acta Oncol, 58(sup1), S49-s54. https://doi.org/10.1080/0284186x.2019.1569259

Olsen, B. C., Sakkestad, S. T., Pfeffer, F., & Karliczek, A. (2019). Rate of Anastomotic Leakage After Rectal Anastomosis Depends on the Definition: Pelvic Abscesses are Significant. Scand J Surg, 108(3), 241-249. https://doi.org/10.1177/1457496918812223

Olsen, F., Uleberg, B., Jacobsen, B. K., & Balteskard, L. (2016). Norske pasienter med tykktarmskreft kommer for sent i gang med tilleggsbehandling. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 136(1), 27-31. https://doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.14.0812

Ooi, B. S., & Lai, J. H. (2009). Colonic J-Pouch, Coloplasty, Side-to-End Anastomosis: Meta-Analysis and Comparison of Outcomes. Seminars in Colon and Rectal Surgery, 20(2), 69-72.

Otchy, D., Hyman, N. H., Simmang, C., Anthony, T., Buie, W. D., Cataldo, P., . . . Rectal, S. (2004). Practice parameters for colon cancer. Dis Colon Rectum, 47(8), 1269-1284. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10350-004-0598-8

Overman, M. J., Lonardi, S., Wong, K. Y. M., Lenz, H. J., Gelsomino, F., Aglietta, M., . . . Andre, T. (2018). Durable Clinical Benefit With Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in DNA Mismatch Repair-Deficient/Microsatellite Instability-High Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. J Clin Oncol, 36(8), 773-779. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2017.76.9901

Overman, M. J., McDermott, R., Leach, J. L., Lonardi, S., Lenz, H. J., Morse, M. A., . . . Andre, T. (2017). Nivolumab in patients with metastatic DNA mismatch repair-deficient or microsatellite instability-high colorectal cancer (CheckMate 142): an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol, 18(9), 1182-1191. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(17)30422-9

Pages, F., Berger, A., Camus, M., Sanchez-Cabo, F., Costes, A., Molidor, R., . . . Galon, J. (2005). Effector memory T cells, early metastasis, and survival in colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med, 353(25), 2654-2666. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa051424

Pai, R., Mäkinen, M., & Rosty, C. (2019). Colorectal serrated lesions and polyps. I: D. Lokuhetty, V. White, R. Watanabe, & I. Cree (red.), Digestive System Tumours (5 utg., s. 163-169). Lyon: International Agency for Reasearch on Cancer.

Palli, D., Trallori, G., Bagnoli, S., Saieva, C., Tarantino, O., Ceroti, M., . . . Masala, G. (2000). Hodgkin's disease risk is increased in patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology, 119(3), 647-653. https://doi.org/DOI 10.1053/gast.2000.16487

Parnaby, C. N., Bailey, W., Balasingam, A., Beckert, L., Eglinton, T., Fife, J., . . . Watson, A. J. (2012). Pulmonary staging in colorectal cancer: a review. Colorectal Dis, 14(6), 660-670. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2011.02601.x

Parseghian, C. M., Napolitano, S., Loree, J. M., & Kopetz, S. (2019). Mechanisms of Innate and Acquired Resistance to Anti-EGFR Therapy: A Review of Current Knowledge with a Focus on Rechallenge Therapies. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 25(23), 6899-6908. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.Ccr-19-0823

Patel, J. D., Galsky, M. D., Chagpar, A. B., Pyle, D., & Loehrer, P. J., Sr. (2011). Role of American Society of Clinical Oncology in low- and middle-income countries. J Clin Oncol, 29(22), 3097-3102. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2011.35.6378

Patel, U. B., & Brown, G. (2013). MRI-based assessment of tumor regression in rectal cancer. Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep, 9(2), 136-145. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11888-013-0169-2

Pathology and genetics of tumours of the digestive system. (2000). (World Health Organization classification of tumours 2). Lyon: IARC Press. Hentet fra http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/pat-gen/bb2/index.php

Pectasides, D., Karavasilis, V., Papaxoinis, G., Gourgioti, G., Makatsoris, T., Raptou, G., . . . Fountzilas, G. (2015). Randomized phase III clinical trial comparing the combination of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) with the combination of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (modified FOLFOX6) as adjuvant therapy in patients with operated high-risk stage II or stage III colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer, 15, 384. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-015-1406-7

Peeters, K. C., Tollenaar, R. A., Marijnen, C. A., Klein Kranenbarg, E., Steup, W. H., Wiggers, T., . . . Dutch Colorectal Cancer, G. (2005). Risk factors for anastomotic failure after total mesorectal excision of rectal cancer. Br J Surg, 92(2), 211-216. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.4806

Peeters, M., Price, T. J., Cervantes, A., Sobrero, A. F., Ducreux, M., Hotko, Y., . . . Gansert, J. (2010). Randomized Phase III Study of Panitumumab With Fluorouracil, Leucovorin, and Irinotecan (FOLFIRI) Compared With FOLFIRI Alone As Second-Line Treatment in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28(31), 4706-4713. https://doi.org/10.1200/Jco.2009.27.6055

Peixoto, R. D., Kumar, A., Speers, C., Renouf, D., Kennecke, H. F., Lim, H. J., . . . Gill, S. (2015). Effect of delay in adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer, 14(1), 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clcc.2014.10.002

Pellise, M., Burgess, N. G., Tutticci, N., Hourigan, L. F., Zanati, S. A., Brown, G. J., . . . Bourke, M. J. (2017). Endoscopic mucosal resection for large serrated lesions in comparison with adenomas: a prospective multicentre study of 2000 lesions. Gut, 66(4), 644-653. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310249

Pendse, D. A., & Taylor, S. A. (2013). Complications of CT colonography: a review. Eur J Radiol, 82(8), 1159-1165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2012.04.011

Pfannschmidt, J., Dienemann, H., & Hoffmann, H. (2007). Surgical resection of pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer: a systematic review of published series. Ann Thorac Surg, 84(1), 324-338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2007.02.093

Pfeiffer, P., Yilmaz, M., Möller, S., Zitnjak, D., Krogh, M., Petersen, L. N., . . . Qvortrup, C. (2020). TAS-102 with or without bevacizumab in patients with chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer: an investigator-initiated, open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol, 21(3), 412-420. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(19)30827-7

Phillips, R. K., Hittinger, R., Fry, J. S., & Fielding, L. P. (1985). Malignant large bowel obstruction. Br J Surg, 72(4), 296-302. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.1800720417

Phillips, R. K., Wallace, M. H., Lynch, P. M., Hawk, E., Gordon, G. B., Saunders, B. P., . . . Group, F. A. P. S. (2002). A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, on duodenal polyposis in familial adenomatous polyposis. Gut, 50(6), 857-860. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.50.6.857

Pickhardt, P. J., Hassan, C., Halligan, S., & Marmo, R. (2011). Colorectal cancer: CT colonography and colonoscopy for detection--systematic review and meta-analysis. Radiology, 259(2), 393-405. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.11101887

Pietrzak, L., Bujko, K., Nowacki, M. P., Kepka, L., Oledzki, J., Rutkowski, A., . . . Polish Colorectal Study, G. (2007). Quality of life, anorectal and sexual functions after preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: report of a randomised trial. Radiother Oncol, 84(3), 217-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2007.07.007

Pohl, H., Srivastava, A., Bensen, S. P., Anderson, P., Rothstein, R. I., Gordon, S. R., . . . Robertson, D. J. (2013). Incomplete polyp resection during colonoscopy-results of the complete adenoma resection (CARE) study. Gastroenterology, 144(1), 74-80.e71. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2012.09.043

Popiolek, M., Dehlaghi, K., Gadan, S., Baban, B., & Matthiessen, P. (2019). Total Mesorectal Excision for Mid-Rectal Cancer Without Anastomosis: Low Hartmann's Operation or Intersphincteric Abdomino-Perineal Excision? Scand J Surg, 108(3), 233-240. https://doi.org/10.1177/1457496918812219

Portier, G., Elias, D., Bouche, O., Rougier, P., Bosset, J. F., Saric, J., . . . Bedenne, L. (2006). Multicenter randomized trial of adjuvant fluorouracil and folinic acid compared with surgery alone after resection of colorectal liver metastases: FFCD ACHBTH AURC 9002 trial. J Clin Oncol, 24(31), 4976-4982. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.06.8353

Pothuri, B., Montemarano, M., Gerardi, M., Shike, M., Ben-Porat, L., Sabbatini, P., & Barakat, R. R. (2005). Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement in patients with malignant bowel obstruction due to ovarian carcinoma. Gynecologic Oncology, 96(2), 330-334. https://doi.org/DOI 10.1016/j.ygyno.2004.09.058

Poulsen, L., Qvortrup, C., Pfeiffer, P., Yilmaz, M., Falkmer, U., & Sorbye, H. (2015). Review on adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer - why do treatment guidelines differ so much? Acta Oncol, 54(4), 437-446. https://doi.org/10.3109/0284186x.2014.993768

Poultsides, G. A., Servais, E. L., Saltz, L. B., Patil, S., Kemeny, N. E., Guillem, J. G., . . . Paty, P. B. (2009). Outcome of primary tumor in patients with synchronous stage IV colorectal cancer receiving combination chemotherapy without surgery as initial treatment. J Clin Oncol, 27(20), 3379-3384.

Premaligne polypper og tidlig-cancer i rektum. (11.04.2011). [nettside]. Norwegian Gastrointestinal Cancer Group. Hentet 01.08.2011, fra http://ngicg.no/wp/?page_id=45

Price, T. J., Peeters, M., Kim, T. W., Li, J., Cascinu, S., Ruff, P., . . . Sidhu, R. (2014). Panitumumab versus cetuximab in patients with chemotherapy-refractory wild-type KRAS exon 2 metastatic colorectal cancer (ASPECCT): a randomised, multicentre, open-label, non-inferiority phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol, 15(6), 569-579. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(14)70118-4

Primrose, J. N., Perera, R., Gray, A., Rose, P., Fuller, A., Corkhill, A., . . . Mant, D. (2014). Effect of 3 to 5 years of scheduled CEA and CT follow-up to detect recurrence of colorectal cancer: the FACS randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 311(3), 263-270. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.285718

Prytz, M., Angenete, E., Ekelund, J., & Haglind, E. (2014). Extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) for rectal cancer--short-term results from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. Selective use of ELAPE warranted. Int J Colorectal Dis, 29(8), 981-987. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00384-014-1932-9

Rabeneck, L., Rumble, R. B., Axler, J., Smith, A., Armstrong, D., Vinden, C., . . . Cancer Care Ontario's Colonoscopy Standards Expert, P. (2007). Cancer Care Ontario Colonoscopy Standards: standards and evidentiary base. Can J Gastroenterol, 21 Suppl D, 5D-24D.

Rades, D., Dahm-Daphi, J., Rudat, V., Schulte, R., Stalpers, L. J., Veninga, T., & Hoskin, P. J. (2006). Is short-course radiotherapy with high doses per fraction the appropriate regimen for metastatic spinal cord compression in colorectal cancer patients? Strahlenther Onkol, 182(12), 708-712.

radfag.no. (2014). [nettside]. Oslo: Norsk Radiografforbund. Hentet 17.11.2014, fra www.radfag.no

Radu, C., Berglund, A., Pahlman, L., & Glimelius, B. (2008). Short-course preoperative radiotherapy with delayed surgery in rectal cancer - a retrospective study. Radiother Oncol, 87(3), 343-349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2007.11.025

Rahbari, N. N., Weitz, J., Hohenberger, W., Heald, R. J., Moran, B., Ulrich, A., . . . Büchler, M. W. (2010). Definition and grading of anastomotic leakage following anterior resection of the rectum: a proposal by the International Study Group of Rectal Cancer. Surgery, 147(3), 339-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2009.10.012

Rahbari, N. N., Zimmermann, J. B., Schmidt, T., Koch, M., Weigand, M. A., & Weitz, J. (2009). Meta-analysis of standard, restrictive and supplemental fluid administration in colorectal surgery. Br J Surg, 96(4), 331-341. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.6552

Rasmussen, M. S., Jorgensen, L. N., & Wille-Jorgensen, P. (2009). Prolonged thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin for abdominal or pelvic surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (1), CD004318. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004318.pub2

Recommendations for cross-sectional imaging in cancer management: computed tomography-CT, magnetic resonance imaging-MRI, positron emission tomography-PET-CT. (2006). London: The Royal College of Radiologists. Hentet fra http://www.rcr.ac.uk/docs/oncology/pdf/Cross_Sectional_Imaging_12.pdf

Resch, A., & Langner, C. (2015). Risk assessment in early colorectal cancer: histological and molecular markers. Dig Dis, 33(1), 77-85. https://doi.org/10.1159/000366036

Rex, D. K., Ahnen, D. J., Baron, J. A., Batts, K. P., Burke, C. A., Burt, R. W., . . . Church, J. (2012). Serrated lesions of the colorectum: review and recommendations from an expert panel. Am J Gastroenterol, 107(9), 1315-1329; quiz 1314, 1330. https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2012.161

Ribic, C. M., Sargent, D. J., Moore, M. J., Thibodeau, S. N., French, A. J., Goldberg, R. M., . . . Gallinger, S. (2003). Tumor microsatellite-instability status as a predictor of benefit from fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. N Engl J Med, 349(3), 247-257. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa022289

Robinson, S. M., Wilson, C. H., Burt, A. D., Manas, D. M., & White, S. A. (2012). Chemotherapy-associated liver injury in patients with colorectal liver metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Surg Oncol, 19(13), 4287-4299. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-012-2438-8

Roels, S., Duthoy, W., Haustermans, K., Penninckx, F., Vandecaveye, V., Boterberg, T., & De Neve, W. (2006). Definition and delineation of the clinical target volume for rectal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 65(4), 1129-1142. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.02.050

Rollins, K. E., Javanmard-Emamghissi, H., & Lobo, D. N. (2018). Impact of mechanical bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery: A meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol, 24(4), 519-536. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v24.i4.519

Rominger, C. J., Gunderson, L. L., Gelber, R. D., & Conner, N. (1985). Radiation therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of residual or inoperable carcinoma of the rectum and rectosigmoid or pelvic recurrence following colorectal surgery. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study (76-16). Am J Clin Oncol, 8(2), 118-127. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000421-198504000-00003

Rondelli, F., Trastulli, S., Cirocchi, R., Avenia, N., Mariani, E., Sciannameo, F., & Noya, G. (2012). Rectal washout and local recurrence in rectal resection for cancer: a meta-analysis. Colorectal Dis, 14(11), 1313-1321. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2011.02903.x

Ronnett, B. M., Yan, H., Kurman, R. J., Shmookler, B. M., Wu, L., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2001). Patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis have a significantly more favorable prognosis than patients with peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis. Cancer, 92(1), 85-91. https://doi.org/Doi 10.1002/1097-0142(20010701)92:1<85::Aid-Cncr1295>3.0.Co;2-R

Rosati, G., Ambrosini, G., Barni, S., Andreoni, B., Corradini, G., Luchena, G., . . . Fossati, R. (2016). A randomized trial of intensive versus minimal surveillance of patients with resected Dukes B2-C colorectal carcinoma. Ann Oncol, 27(2), 274-280. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdv541

Rosenberg, R., Friederichs, J., Schuster, T., Gertler, R., Maak, M., Becker, K., . . . Siewert, J. R. (2008). Prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer is associated with lymph node ratio: a single-center analysis of 3,026 patients over a 25-year time period. Ann Surg, 248(6), 968-978.

Rosty, C., Brosens, L. A. A., Dekker, E., & Nagtegaal, I. D. (2019). Serrated polyposis. I: M. J. Arends, F. Carneiro, S. F. Lax, & A. J. Lazar (red.), WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System (s. 532-534). Lyon: IARC Press:.

Rothenberger, D. A., & Garcia-Aguilar, J. (2002). Management of cancer in a polyp. I: L. B. Saltz (red.), Colorectal cancer: multimodality management (s. 325-335). Totowa, N.J.: Humana.

Russell, A. H., Clyde, C., Wasserman, T. H., Turner, S. S., & Rotman, M. (1993). Accelerated hyperfractionated hepatic irradiation in the management of patients with liver metastases: results of the RTOG dose escalating protocol. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 27(1), 117-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-3016(93)90428-x

Rusthoven, K. E., Kavanagh, B. D., Burri, S. H., Chen, C., Cardenes, H., Chidel, M. A., . . . Schefter, T. E. (2009). Multi-institutional phase I/II trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung metastases. J Clin Oncol, 27(10), 1579-1584. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.19.6386

Rutter, M. D., East, J., Rees, C. J., Cripps, N., Docherty, J., Dolwani, S., . . . Sharp, L. (2020). British Society of Gastroenterology/Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland/Public Health England post-polypectomy and post-colorectal cancer resection surveillance guidelines. Gut, 69(2), 201-223. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-319858

Rutter, M. D., Nickerson, C., Rees, C. J., Patnick, J., & Blanks, R. G. (2014). Risk factors for adverse events related to polypectomy in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme. Endoscopy, 46(2), 90-97. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1344987

Sahani, D. V., Bajwa, M. A., Andrabi, Y., Bajpai, S., & Cusack, J. C. (2014). Current status of imaging and emerging techniques to evaluate liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma. Ann Surg, 259(5), 861-872. https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000000525

Saltz, L. B., Clarke, S., Diaz-Rubio, E., Scheithauer, W., Figer, A., Wong, R., . . . Cassidy, J. (2008). Bevacizumab in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy as first-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomized phase III study. J Clin Oncol, 26(12), 2013-2019.

Saltz, L. B., Niedzwiecki, D., Hollis, D., Goldberg, R. M., Hantel, A., Thomas, J. P., . . . Mayer, R. J. (2007). Irinotecan fluorouracil plus leucovorin is not superior to fluorouracil plus leucovorin alone as adjuvant treatment for stage III colon cancer: results of CALGB 89803. J Clin Oncol, 25(23), 3456-3461.

Sandström, P., Røsok, B. I., Sparrelid, E., Larsen, P. N., Larsson, A. L., Lindell, G., . . . Björnsson, B. (2018). ALPPS Improves Resectability Compared With Conventional Two-stage Hepatectomy in Patients With Advanced Colorectal Liver Metastasis: Results From a Scandinavian Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial (LIGRO Trial). Ann Surg, 267(5), 833-840. https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000002511

Sanoff, H. K. (2018). Best evidence supports annual surveillance for resected colorectal cancer. JAMA, 319(20), 2083-2085. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.5817

Sato, K., Inomata, M., Kakisako, K., Shiraishi, N., Adachi, Y., & Kitano, S. (2003). Surgical technique influences bowel function after low anterior resection and sigmoid colectomy. Hepatogastroenterology, 50(53), 1381-1384.

Sauer, R., Liersch, T., Merkel, S., Fietkau, R., Hohenberger, W., Hess, C., . . . Rodel, C. (2012). Preoperative versus postoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: results of the German CAO/ARO/AIO-94 randomized phase III trial after a median follow-up of 11 years. J Clin Oncol, 30(16), 1926-1933. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2011.40.1836

Schmoll, H. J., Tabernero, J., Maroun, J., de Braud, F., Price, T., Van Cutsem, E., . . . Haller, D. G. (2015). Capecitabine Plus Oxaliplatin Compared With Fluorouracil/Folinic Acid As Adjuvant Therapy for Stage III Colon Cancer: Final Results of the NO16968 Randomized Controlled Phase III Trial. J Clin Oncol, 33(32), 3733-3740. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2015.60.9107

Schmoll, H. J., Van Cutsem, E., Stein, A., Valentini, V., Glimelius, B., Haustermans, K., . . . Cervantes, A. (2012). ESMO Consensus Guidelines for management of patients with colon and rectal cancer. a personalized approach to clinical decision making. Ann Oncol, 23(10), 2479-2516. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mds236

Schrag, D., Weng, S., Brooks, G., Meyerhardt, J. A., & Venook, A. P. (2016). The relationship between primary tumor sidedness and prognosis in colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol, 34(15 suppl), 3505. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.34.15_suppl.3505

Scope, A., Agero, A. L., Dusza, S. W., Myskowski, P. L., Lieb, J. A., Saltz, L., . . . Halpern, A. C. (2007). Randomized double-blind trial of prophylactic oral minocycline and topical tazarotene for cetuximab-associated acne-like eruption. J Clin Oncol, 25(34), 5390-5396. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.12.6987

Sebag-Montefiore, D., Stephens, R. J., Steele, R., Monson, J., Grieve, R., Khanna, S., . . . Parmar, M. (2009). Preoperative radiotherapy versus selective postoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer (MRC CR07 and NCIC-CTG C016): a multicentre, randomised trial. Lancet, 373(9666), 811-820. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(09)60484-0

Sebastian, S., Johnston, S., Geoghegan, T., Torreggiani, W., & Buckley, M. (2004). Pooled analysis of the efficacy and safety of self-expanding metal stenting in malignant colorectal obstruction. Am J Gastroenterol, 99(10), 2051-2057. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.40017.x

Segnan, N., Patnick, J., & von Karsa, L. (red.). (2010). European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer

Seitz, U., Bohnacker, S., Seewald, S., Thonke, F., Brand, B., Braiutigam, T., & Soehendra, N. (2004). Is endoscopic polypectomy an adequate therapy for malignant colorectal adenomas? Presentation of 114 patients and review of the literature. Dis Colon Rectum, 47(11), 1789-1796.

Selzner, M., Hany, T. F., Wildbrett, P., McCormack, L., Kadry, Z., & Clavien, P. A. (2004). Does the novel PET/CT imaging modality impact on the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer of the liver? Ann Surg, 240(6), 1027-1034.

Senagore, A. J., Emery, T., Luchtefeld, M., Kim, D., Dujovny, N., & Hoedema, R. (2009). Fluid management for laparoscopic colectomy: a prospective, randomized assessment of goal-directed administration of balanced salt solution or hetastarch coupled with an enhanced recovery program. Dis Colon Rectum, 52(12), 1935-1940. https://doi.org/10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181b4c35e

Sepulveda, A. R., Hamilton, S. R., Allegra, C. J., Grody, W., Cushman-Vokoun, A. M., Funkhouser, W. K., . . . Nowak, J. A. (2017a). Molecular Biomarkers for the Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer: Guideline From the American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular Pathology, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology. J Clin Oncol, 35(13), 1453-1486. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2016.71.9807

Sepulveda, A. R., Hamilton, S. R., Allegra, C. J., Grody, W., Cushman-Vokoun, A. M., Funkhouser, W. K., . . . Nowak, J. A. (2017b). Molecular Biomarkers for the Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer: Guideline Summary From the American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology. J Oncol Pract, 13(5), 333-337. https://doi.org/10.1200/jop.2017.022152

Seymour, M. T., Maughan, T. S., Ledermann, J. A., Topham, C., James, R., Gwyther, S. J., . . . National Cancer Research Institute Colorectal Clinical Studies, G. (2007). Different strategies of sequential and combination chemotherapy for patients with poor prognosis advanced colorectal cancer (MRC FOCUS): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 370(9582), 143-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61087-3

Shaukat, A., Kaltenbach, T., Dominitz, J. A., Robertson, D. J., Anderson, J. C., Cruise, M., . . . Rex, D. K. (2020). Endoscopic Recognition and Management Strategies for Malignant Colorectal Polyps: Recommendations of the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology, 159(5), 1916-1934.e1912. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.08.050

Shihab, O. C., Moran, B. J., Heald, R. J., Quirke, P., & Brown, G. (2009). MRI staging of low rectal cancer. Eur Radiol, 19(3), 643-650. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-008-1184-6

Shihab, O. C., Taylor, F., Bees, N., Blake, H., Jeyadevan, N., Bleehen, R., . . . Brown, G. (2011). Relevance of magnetic resonance imaging-detected pelvic sidewall lymph node involvement in rectal cancer. Br J Surg, 98(12), 1798-1804. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.7662

Shirouzu, K., Isomoto, H., Hayashi, A., Nagamatsu, Y., & Kakegawa, T. (1995). Surgical treatment for patients with pulmonary metastases after resection of primary colorectal carcinoma. Cancer, 76(3), 393-398. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19950801)76:3<393::aid-cncr2820760308>3.0.co;2-8

Silva, I. L., Iskandarani, M., Hotouras, A., Murphy, J., Bhan, C., Adada, B., & Wexner, S. D. (2017). A systematic review to assess the management of patients with cerebral metastases secondary to colorectal cancer. Tech Coloproctol, 21(11), 847-852. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10151-017-1707-8

Simillis, C., Mistry, K., & Prabhudesai, A. (2013). Intraoperative rectal washout in rectal cancer surgery: a survey of current practice in the UK. Int J Surg, 11(9), 993-997. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.06.002

Single-stage treatment for malignant left-sided colonic obstruction: a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing subtotal colectomy with segmental resection following intraoperative irrigation. The SCOTIA Study Group. Subtotal Colectomy versus On-table Irrigation and Anastomosis. (1995). Br J Surg, 82(12), 1622-1627. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.1800821211

Sjo, O. H., Larsen, S., Lunde, O. C., & Nesbakken, A. (2009). Short term outcome after emergency and elective surgery for colon cancer. Colorectal Dis, 11(7), 733-739. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2008.01613.x

Smedley, F., Bowling, T., James, M., Stokes, E., Goodger, C., O'Connor, O., . . . Silk, D. (2004). Randomized clinical trial of the effects of preoperative and postoperative oral nutritional supplements on clinical course and cost of care. Br J Surg, 91(8), 983-990. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.4578

Smith, A. J., Driman, D. K., Spithoff, K., Hunter, A., McLeod, R. S., Simunovic, M., . . . Pathology. (2010). Guideline for optimization of colorectal cancer surgery and pathology. J Surg Oncol, 101(1), 5-12. https://doi.org/10.1002/jso.21395

Smith, I., Kranke, P., Murat, I., Smith, A., O'Sullivan, G., Soreide, E., . . . European Society of, A. (2011). Perioperative fasting in adults and children: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology. Eur J Anaesthesiol, 28(8), 556-569. https://doi.org/10.1097/EJA.0b013e3283495ba1

Smith, M. D., McCall, J., Plank, L., Herbison, G. P., Soop, M., & Nygren, J. (2014). Preoperative carbohydrate treatment for enhancing recovery after elective surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (8), CD009161. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009161.pub2

Smith, N. J., Barbachano, Y., Norman, A. R., Swift, R. I., Abulafi, A. M., & Brown, G. (2008). Prognostic significance of magnetic resonance imaging-detected extramural vascular invasion in rectal cancer. Br J Surg, 95(2), 229-236. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.5917

Smith, N. J., Bees, N., Barbachano, Y., Norman, A. R., Swift, R. I., & Brown, G. (2007). Preoperative computed tomography staging of nonmetastatic colon cancer predicts outcome: implications for clinical trials. Br J Cancer, 96(7), 1030-1036. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6603646

Snyder, R. A., Hu, C., Cuddy, A., & et al. (2018). Association between intensity of posttreatment surveillance testing and detection of recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. JAMA, 319(20), 2104-2115. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.5816

Sobrero, A. F., Maurel, J., Fehrenbacher, L., Scheithauer, W., Abubakr, Y. A., Lutz, M. P., . . . Burris, H. A., 3rd. (2008). EPIC: phase III trial of cetuximab plus irinotecan after fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin failure in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol, 26(14), 2311-2319. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.13.1193

Solomon, S. D., Wittes, J., Finn, P. V., Fowler, R., Viner, J., Bertagnolli, M. M., . . . Hawk, E. (2008). Cardiovascular risk of celecoxib in 6 randomized placebo-controlled trials: the cross trial safety analysis. Circulation, 117(16), 2104-2113. https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.108.764530

Song, F., & Glenny, A. M. (1998). Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Br J Surg, 85(9), 1232-1241. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2168.1998.00883.x

Soop, M., Nygren, J., Myrenfors, P., Thorell, A., & Ljungqvist, O. (2001). Preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment attenuates immediate postoperative insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 280(4), E576-583. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.2001.280.4.E576

Sorbye, H., Berglund, A., Tveit, K. M., Ogreid, D., Wanderas, E. H., Wentzel-Larsen, T., . . . Glimelius, B. (2007). Secondary treatment and predictive factors for second-line chemotherapy after first-line oxaliplatin-based therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer. Acta Oncol, 46(7), 982-988. https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860701261568

Sorbye, H., Cvancarova, M., Qvortrup, C., Pfeiffer, P., & Glimelius, B. (2013). Age-dependent improvement in median and long-term survival in unselected population-based Nordic registries of patients with synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol, 24(9), 2354-2360. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdt197

Sorbye, H., Glimelius, B., Berglund, A., Fokstuen, T., Tveit, K. M., Braendengen, M., . . . Dahl, O. (2004). Multicenter phase II study of Nordic fluorouracil and folinic acid bolus schedule combined with oxaliplatin as first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22(1), 31-38. https://doi.org/10.1200/Jco.2004.05.188

Sorbye, H., Mauer, M., Gruenberger, T., Glimelius, B., Poston, G. J., Schlag, P. M., . . . Federation Francophone de Cancerologie, D. (2012). Predictive factors for the benefit of perioperative FOLFOX for resectable liver metastasis in colorectal cancer patients (EORTC Intergroup Trial 40983). Ann Surg, 255(3), 534-539. https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182456aa2

Sorbye, H., Pfeiffer, P., Cavalli-Bjorkman, N., Qvortrup, C., Holsen, M. H., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Glimelius, B. (2009). Clinical trial enrollment, patient characteristics, and survival differences in prospectively registered metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Cancer, 115(20), 4679-4687. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.24527

Soreide, J. A., Eiriksson, K., Sandvik, O., Viste, A., Horn, A., Johnsen, G., & Gronbech, J. E. (2008). [Surgical treatment of liver metastases from colorectal cancer]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 128(1), 50-53.

Spanos, W. J., Jr., Wasserman, T., Meoz, R., Sala, J., Kong, J., & Stetz, J. (1987). Palliation of advanced pelvic malignant disease with large fraction pelvic radiation and misonidazole: final report of RTOG phase I/II study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 13(10), 1479-1482. https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-3016(87)90314-2

Spigelman, A. D., Williams, C. B., Talbot, I. C., Domizio, P., & Phillips, R. K. (1989). Upper gastrointestinal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Lancet, 2(8666), 783-785. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(89)90840-4

Spinelli, P., Calarco, G., Mancini, A., & Ni, X. G. (2006). Operative colonoscopy in cancer patients. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol, 15(6), 339-347. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645700601038036

Stang, A., Fischbach, R., Teichmann, W., Bokemeyer, C., & Braumann, D. (2009). A systematic review on the clinical benefit and role of radiofrequency ablation as treatment of colorectal liver metastases. European Journal of Cancer, 45(10), 1748-1756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2009.03.012

Starck, M., Bohe, M., Simanaitis, M., & Valentin, L. (2003). Rectal endosonography can distinguish benign rectal lesions from invasive early rectal cancers. Colorectal Dis., 5(3), 246-250.

Stein, G. E. (2005). Regulated drug development and usage. I: T. M. Brody, J. Larner, L. Wecker, & K. P. Minneman (red.), Brody's human pharmacology: molecular to clinical (s. 71-75). Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby.

Steinberg, S. M., Barkin, J. S., Kaplan, R. S., & Stablein, D. M. (1986). Prognostic indicators of colon tumors. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group experience. Cancer, 57(9), 1866-1870. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19860501)57:9<1866::aid-cncr2820570928>3.0.co;2-t

Stevenson, A. R., Solomon, M. J., Lumley, J. W., Hewett, P., Clouston, A. D., Gebski, V. J., . . . Simes, J. (2015). Effect of Laparoscopic-Assisted Resection vs Open Resection on Pathological Outcomes in Rectal Cancer: The ALaCaRT Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA, 314(13), 1356-1363. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.12009

Stoltz, A., Gagniere, J., Dupre, A., & Rivoire, M. (2014). Radiofrequency ablation for colorectal liver metastases. J Visc Surg, 151 Suppl 1, S33-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviscsurg.2013.12.005

Storli, P. E., Johnsen, G., Juel, I. S., Grønbech, J. E., & Bringeland, E. A. (2019). Impact of increased resection rates and a liver parenchyma sparing strategy on long-term survival after surgery for colorectal liver metastases. A population-based study. Scand J Gastroenterol, 54(7), 890-898. https://doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2019.1641215

Stormark, K., Søreide, K., Søreide, J. A., Kvaløy, J. T., Pfeffer, F., Eriksen, M. T., . . . Kørner, H. (2016). Nationwide implementation of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer: short-term outcomes and long-term survival in a population-based cohort. Surg Endosc, 30(11), 4853-4864. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-016-4819-8

Sugarbaker, P. H. (2003). Carcinomatosis--is cure an option? J Clin Oncol, 21(5), 762-764. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2003.12.071

Sugarbaker, P. H. (2010). Surgical responsibilities in the management of peritoneal carcinomatosis. J Surg Oncol, 101(8), 713-724. https://doi.org/10.1002/jso.21484

Sugarbaker, P. H., & Chang, D. (1999). Results of treatment of 385 patients with peritoneal surface spread of appendiceal malignancy. Ann Surg Oncol, 6(8), 727-731. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10434-999-0727-7

Sugihara, K., Kobayashi, H., Kato, T., Mori, T., Mochizuki, H., Kameoka, S., . . . Muto, T. (2006). Indication and benefit of pelvic sidewall dissection for rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum, 49(11), 1663-1672. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10350-006-0714-z

Sun, Z., Adam, M. A., Kim, J., Nussbaum, D. P., Benrashid, E., Mantyh, C. R., & Migaly, J. (2016). Determining the Optimal Timing for Initiation of Adjuvant Chemotherapy After Resection for Stage II and III Colon Cancer. Dis Colon Rectum, 59(2), 87-93. https://doi.org/10.1097/dcr.0000000000000518

Sundermeyer, M. L., Meropol, N. J., Rogatko, A., Wang, H., & Cohen, S. J. (2005). Changing patterns of bone and brain metastases in patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer, 5(2), 108-113. https://doi.org/10.3816/ccc.2005.n.022

Suzuki, H., Fujii, T., Asao, T., Tsutsumi, S., Wada, S., Araki, K., . . . Kuwano, H. (2014). Extracapsular lymph node involvement is associated with colorectal liver metastases and impact outcome after hepatectomy for colorectal metastases. World J Surg, 38(8), 2079-2088. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-014-2488-0

Sørbye, H., Brændengen, M., & Balteskard, L. (2008). Palliativ kjemoterapi og strålebehandling ved metastatisk kolorektal cancer. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen, 128(2), 194-197.

Søreide, K., Træland, J. H., Stokkeland, P. J., Glomsaker, T., Søreide, J. A., & Kørner, H. (2012). Adherence to national guidelines for surveillance after curative resection of nonmetastatic colon and rectum cancer: a survey among Norwegian gastrointestinal surgeons. Colorectal Dis, 14(3), 320-324. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2011.02631.x

Sørensen, O., Flatmark, K., Reed, W., Wiig, J. N., Dueland, S., Giercksky, K. E., & Larsen, S. G. (2012). Evaluation of complete cytoreductive surgery and two intraperitoneal chemotherapy techniques in Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Eur J Surg Oncol, 38(10), 969-976. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2012.06.552

Takahashi, T., Ueno, M., Azekura, K., & Ohta, H. (2000). Lateral node dissection and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum, 43(10 Suppl), S59-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02237228

Tambyraja, A. L., Sengupta, F., MacGregor, A. B., Bartolo, D. C., & Fearon, K. C. (2004). Patterns and clinical outcomes associated with routine intravenous sodium and fluid administration after colorectal resection. World J Surg, 28(10), 1046-1051; discussion 1051-1042. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-004-7383-7

Tanaka, Y., Maniwa, Y., Nishio, W., Yoshimura, M., & Okita, Y. (2008). The optimal timing to resect pulmonary metastasis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg, 33(6), 1135-1138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcts.2008.03.002

Tanis, E., Nordlinger, B., Mauer, M., Sorbye, H., van Coevorden, F., Gruenberger, T., . . . Ruers, T. J. (2014). Local recurrence rates after radiofrequency ablation or resection of colorectal liver metastases. Analysis of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer #40004 and #40983. Eur J Cancer, 50(5), 912-919. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2013.12.008

Tanis, P. J., Doeksen, A., & van Lanschot, J. J. (2013). Intentionally curative treatment of locally recurrent rectal cancer: a systematic review. Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie, 56(2), 135-144. https://doi.org/10.1503/cjs.025911

Taylor, F. G., Swift, R. I., Blomqvist, L., & Brown, G. (2008). A systematic approach to the interpretation of preoperative staging MRI for rectal cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol, 191(6), 1827-1835. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.08.1004

Taylor, F. G. M., Quirke, P., Heald, R. J., Moran, B., Blomqvist, L., Swift, I., . . . Grp, M. S. (2011). One millimetre is the safe cut-off for magnetic resonance imaging prediction of surgical margin status in rectal cancer. British Journal of Surgery, 98(6), 872-879. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.7458

Tejpar, S., Stintzing, S., Ciardiello, F., Tabernero, J., Van Cutsem, E., Beier, F., . . . Heinemann, V. (2016). Prognostic and Predictive Relevance of Primary Tumor Location in Patients With RAS Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Retrospective Analyses of the CRYSTAL and FIRE-3 Trials. JAMA Oncol, Oct 10 [Epub ahead of print]. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.3797

ten Broeke, S. W., Brohet, R. M., Tops, C. M., van der Klift, H. M., Velthuizen, M. E., Bernstein, I., . . . Wijnen, J. T. (2015). Lynch syndrome caused by germline PMS2 mutations: delineating the cancer risk. J Clin Oncol, 33(4), 319-325. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2014.57.8088

Thelen, A., Jonas, S., Benckert, C., Schumacher, G., Lopez-Hanninen, E., Rudolph, B., . . . Neuhaus, P. (2007). Repeat liver resection for recurrent liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol, 33(3), 324-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2006.10.016

Tilney, H. S., Lovegrove, R. E., Purkayastha, S., Sains, P. S., Weston-Petrides, G. K., Darzi, A. W., . . . Heriot, A. G. (2007). Comparison of colonic stenting and open surgery for malignant large bowel obstruction. Surg Endosc, 21(2), 225-233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-005-0644-1

Tjandra, J. J., & Chan, M. K. (2006). Systematic review on the short-term outcome of laparoscopic resection for colon and rectosigmoid cancer. Colorectal Dis, 8(5), 375-388. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2006.00974.x

Tjandra, J. J., Kilkenny, J. W., Buie, W. D., Hyman, N., Simmang, C., Anthony, T., . . . Rectal, S. (2005). Practice parameters for the management of rectal cancer (revised). Dis Colon Rectum, 48(3), 411-423. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10350-004-0937-9

TNM: classification of malignant tumors. (2016). (8 utg.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Tournigand, C., Andre, T., Achille, E., Lledo, G., Flesh, M., Mery-Mignard, D., . . . de Gramont, A. (2004). FOLFIRI followed by FOLFOX6 or the reverse sequence in advanced colorectal cancer: a randomized GERCOR study. J Clin Oncol, 22(2), 229-237. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2004.05.113

Tranø, G., Wasmuth, H., Sjursen, W., & Vatten, L. (2011). Patient and tumor characteristics may raise clinicians' awareness of familial colorectal cancer: a Norwegian population-based study. Scand J Gastroenterol, 46(10), 1236-1242. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2011.594086

Treasure, T., Fallowfield, L., Farewell, V., Ferry, D., Lees, B., Leonard, P., . . . Pulmonary Metastasectomy in Colorectal Cancer trial development, g. (2009). Pulmonary metastasectomy in colorectal cancer: time for a trial. Eur J Surg Oncol, 35(7), 686-689. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2008.12.005

Troja, A., El-Sourani, N., Abdou, A., Antolovic, D., & Raab, H. R. (2015). Surgical options for locally recurrent rectal cancer--review and update. Int J Colorectal Dis, 30(9), 1157-1163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00384-015-2249-z

Tronstad, P. K., Simpson, L. V. H., Olsen, B., Pfeffer, F., & Karliczek, A. (2020). Low rate of local recurrence detection by rectoscopy in follow-up of rectal cancer. Colorectal Dis, 22(3), 254-260. https://doi.org/10.1111/codi.14858

Tudyka, V., Blomqvist, L., Beets-Tan, R. G., Boelens, P. G., Valentini, V., van de Velde, C. J., . . . Brown, G. (2014). EURECCA consensus conference highlights about colon & rectal cancer multidisciplinary management: the radiology experts review. Eur J Surg Oncol, 40(4), 469-475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2013.10.029

Tveit, K. M., Guldvog, I., Hagen, S., Trondsen, E., Harbitz, T., Nygaard, K., . . . Hannisdal, E. (1997). Randomized controlled trial of postoperative radiotherapy and short-term time-scheduled 5-fluorouracil against surgery alone in the treatment of Dukes B and C rectal cancer. Norwegian Adjuvant Rectal Cancer Project Group. Br J Surg, 84(8), 1130-1135.

Tveit, K. M., Guren, T., Glimelius, B., Pfeiffer, P., Sorbye, H., Pyrhonen, S., . . . Christoffersen, T. (2012). Phase III trial of cetuximab with continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) versus FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: the NORDIC-VII study. J Clin Oncol, 30(15), 1755-1762. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.38.0915

Twelves, C., Wong, A., Nowacki, M. P., Abt, M., Burris, H., Carrato, A., . . . Scheithauer, W. (2005). Capecitabine as adjuvant treatment for stage III colon cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(26), 2696-2704. https://doi.org/DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa043116

Tytherleigh, M. G., Warren, B. F., & Mortensen, N. J. (2008). Management of early rectal cancer. Br J Surg, 95(4), 409-423. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.6127

Uchida, I., Asoh, T., Shirasaka, C., & Tsuji, H. (1988). Effect of Epidural Analgesia on Postoperative Insulin Resistance as Evaluated by Insulin Clamp Technique. British Journal of Surgery, 75(6), 557-562. https://doi.org/DOI 10.1002/bjs.1800750618

Umar, A., Boland, C. R., Terdiman, J. P., Syngal, S., de la Chapelle, A., Ruschoff, J., . . . Srivastava, S. (2004). Revised Bethesda Guidelines for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) and microsatellite instability. J Natl Cancer Inst, 96(4), 261-268. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djh034

Umpleby, H. C., & Williamson, R. C. (1984). Survival in acute obstructing colorectal carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum, 27(5), 299-304. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02555634

Vale, C. L., Tierney, J. F., Fisher, D., Adams, R. A., Kaplan, R., Maughan, T. S., . . . Meade, A. M. (2012). Does anti-EGFR therapy improve outcome in advanced colorectal cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Treat Rev, 38(6), 618-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2011.11.002

Valentini, V., Glimelius, B., Haustermans, K., Marijnen, C. A., Rodel, C., Gambacorta, M. A., . . . van de Velde, C. J. (2014). EURECCA consensus conference highlights about rectal cancer clinical management: the radiation oncologist's expert review. Radiother Oncol, 110(1), 195-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2013.10.024

Valentini, V., Morganti, A. G., Gambacorta, M. A., Mohiuddin, M., Doglietto, G. B., Coco, C., . . . Study Group for Therapies of Rectal, M. (2006). Preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis: A multicentric phase II study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 64(4), 1129-1139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.09.017

Van Cutsem, E., Cervantes, A., Adam, R., Sobrero, A., Van Krieken, J. H., Aderka, D., . . . Arnold, D. (2016). ESMO consensus guidelines for the management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol, 27(8), 1386-1422. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdw235

Van Cutsem, E., Kohne, C. H., Hitre, E., Zaluski, J., Chang Chien, C. R., Makhson, A., . . . Rougier, P. (2009). Cetuximab and chemotherapy as initial treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med, 360(14), 1408-1417.

Van Cutsem, E., Labianca, R., Bodoky, G., Barone, C., Aranda, E., Nordlinger, B., . . . Cunningham, D. (2009). Randomized phase III trial comparing biweekly infusional fluorouracil/leucovorin alone or with irinotecan in the adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer: PETACC-3. J Clin Oncol, 27(19), 3117-3125. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.21.6663

Van Cutsem, E., Peeters, M., Siena, S., Humblet, Y., Hendlisz, A., Neyns, B., . . . Amado, R. G. (2007). Open-label phase III trial of panitumumab plus best supportive care compared with best supportive care alone in patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol, 25(13), 1658-1664. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.08.1620

Van Cutsem, E., Rivera, F., Berry, S., Kretzschmar, A., Michael, M., DiBartolomeo, M., . . . First, B. i. (2009). Safety and efficacy of first-line bevacizumab with FOLFOX, XELOX, FOLFIRI and fluoropyrimidines in metastatic colorectal cancer: the BEAT study. Ann Oncol, 20(11), 1842-1847. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdp233

van de Velde, C. J., Boelens, P. G., Borras, J. M., Coebergh, J. W., Cervantes, A., Blomqvist, L., . . . Valentini, V. (2014). EURECCA colorectal: multidisciplinary management: European consensus conference colon & rectum. Eur J Cancer, 50(1):1.e1-1.e34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2013.06.048

van Delden, O. M., & Lameris, J. S. (2008). Percutaneous drainage and stenting for palliation of malignant bile duct obstruction. Eur Radiol, 18(3), 448-456. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-007-0796-6

van der Paardt, M. P., Zagers, M. B., Beets-Tan, R. G., Stoker, J., & Bipat, S. (2013). Patients who undergo preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer restaged by using diagnostic MR imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Radiology, 269(1), 101-112. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.13122833

van der Valk, M. J. M., Marijnen, C. A. M., van Etten, B., Dijkstra, E. A., Hilling, D. E., Kranenbarg, E. M., . . . Hospers, G. A. P. (2020). Compliance and tolerability of short-course radiotherapy followed by preoperative chemotherapy and surgery for high-risk rectal cancer - Results of the international randomized RAPIDO-trial. Radiother Oncol, 147, 75-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.03.011

van Dijk, T. H., Tamas, K., Beukema, J. C., Beets, G. L., Gelderblom, A. J., de Jong, K. P., . . . Havenga, K. (2013). Evaluation of short-course radiotherapy followed by neoadjuvant bevacizumab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin and subsequent radical surgical treatment in primary stage IV rectal cancer. Ann Oncol, 24(7), 1762-1769. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdt124

van Gijn, W., Marijnen, C. A., Nagtegaal, I. D., Kranenbarg, E. M., Putter, H., Wiggers, T., . . . van de Velde, C. J. (2011). Preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision for resectable rectal cancer: 12-year follow-up of the multicentre, randomised controlled TME trial. Lancet Oncol, 12(6), 575-582. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(11)70097-3

van Gijn, W., van Stiphout, R. G., van de Velde, C. J., Valentini, V., Lammering, G., Gambacorta, M. A., . . . Lambin, P. (2015). Nomograms to predict survival and the risk for developing local or distant recurrence in patients with rectal cancer treated with optional short-term radiotherapy. Ann Oncol, 26(5), 928-935. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdv023

van Ruth, S., Verwaal, V. J., & Zoetmulder, F. A. (2003). Pharmacokinetics of intraperitoneal mitomycin C. Surg Oncol Clin N Am, 12(3), 771-780. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1055-3207(03)00031-0

Vandermeulen, E. P., Van Aken, H., & Vermylen, J. (1994). Anticoagulants and spinal-epidural anesthesia. Anesth Analg, 79(6), 1165-1177. https://doi.org/10.1213/00000539-199412000-00024

Vasen, H. F., Blanco, I., Aktan-Collan, K., Gopie, J. P., Alonso, A., Aretz, S., . . . Moslein, G. (2013). Revised guidelines for the clinical management of Lynch syndrome (HNPCC): recommendations by a group of European experts. Gut, 62(6), 812-823. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2012-304356

Vasen, H. F., Moslein, G., Alonso, A., Aretz, S., Bernstein, I., Bertario, L., . . . Wijnen, J. (2008). Guidelines for the clinical management of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Gut, 57(5), 704-713. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2007.136127

Vasen, H. F., Tomlinson, I., & Castells, A. (2015). Clinical management of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes. Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 12(2), 88-97. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2014.229

Vasen, H. F., Watson, P., Mecklin, J. P., & Lynch, H. T. (1999). New clinical criteria for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, Lynch syndrome) proposed by the International Collaborative group on HNPCC. Gastroenterology, 116(6), 1453-1456. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0016-5085(99)70510-x

Vatn, M. H., & Stalsberg, H. (1982). The prevalence of polyps of the large intestine in Oslo: an autopsy study. Cancer, 49(4), 819-825. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19820215)49:4<819::aid-cncr2820490435>3.0.co;2-d

Veileder i biopsibesvarelse av maligne svulster. (2012). (2 utg.). (Skriftserie for leger: Utdanning og kvalitetsutvikling). Oslo: Den norske legeforening.

Venderbosch, S., Doornebal, J., Teerenstra, S., Lemmens, W., Punt, C. J., & Koopman, M. (2012). Outcome of first line systemic treatment in elderly compared to younger patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective analysis of the CAIRO and CAIRO2 studies of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG). Acta Oncol, 51(7), 831-839. https://doi.org/10.3109/0284186X.2012.699193

Vennix, S., Pelzers, L., Bouvy, N., Beets, G. L., Pierie, J. P., Wiggers, T., & Breukink, S. (2014). Laparoscopic versus open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 4, Cd005200. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005200.pub3

Venook, A. P., Niedzwiecki, D., Innocenti, F., Fruth, B., Greene, C., O'Neil, B. H., . . . Lenz, H.-J. (2016). Impact of primary (1º) tumor location on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients (pts) with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC): Analysis of CALGB/SWOG 80405 (Alliance). J Clin Oncol, 34(15 suppl), 3504. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.34.15_suppl.3504

Venook, A. P., Niedzwiecki, D., Lenz, H. J., Innocenti, F., Fruth, B., Meyerhardt, J. A., . . . Blanke, C. (2017). Effect of First-Line Chemotherapy Combined With Cetuximab or Bevacizumab on Overall Survival in Patients With KRAS Wild-Type Advanced or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA, 317(23), 2392-2401. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.7105

Verwaal, V. J., Bruin, S., Boot, H., van Slooten, G., & van Tinteren, H. (2008). 8-year follow-up of randomized trial: cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy versus systemic chemotherapy in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol, 15(9), 2426-2432. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-008-9966-2

Verwaal, V. J., van Ruth, S., Witkamp, A., Boot, H., van Slooten, G., & Zoetmulder, F. A. (2005). Long-term survival of peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin. Ann Surg Oncol, 12(1), 65-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10434-004-1167-z

Vleugels, J. L. A., Hazewinkel, Y., Fockens, P., & Dekker, E. (2017). Natural history of diminutive and small colorectal polyps: a systematic literature review. Gastrointest Endosc, 85(6), 1169-1176.e1161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2016.12.014

Vuik, F. E., Nieuwenburg, S. A., Bardou, M., Lansdorp-Vogelaar, I., Dinis-Ribeiro, M., Bento, M. J., . . . Spaander, M. C. (2019). Increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in young adults in Europe over the last 25 years. Gut, 68(10), 1820-1826. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317592

Walker, K. J., & Smith, A. F. (2009). Premedication for anxiety in adult day surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (4), CD002192. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002192.pub2

Walsh, S. R., Tang, T., Bass, S., & Gaunt, M. E. (2008). Doppler-guided intra-operative fluid management during major abdominal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Clin Pract, 62(3), 466-470. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2007.01516.x

Wanders, L. K., Dekker, E., Pullens, B., Bassett, P., Travis, S. P., & East, J. E. (2014). Cancer risk after resection of polypoid dysplasia in patients with longstanding ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 12(5), 756-764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2013.07.024

Wanebo, H. J., Gaker, D. L., Whitehill, R., Morgan, R. F., & Constable, W. C. (1987). Pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer. Options for curative resection. Ann Surg, 205(5), 482-495. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000658-198705000-00006

Wasmuth, H. H., Faerden, A. E., Myklebust, T., Pfeffer, F., Norderval, S., Riis, R., . . . Rashid, G. (2020). Transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer has been suspended in Norway. Br J Surg, 107(1), 121-130. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.11459

Watt, A. M., Faragher, I. G., Griffin, T. T., Rieger, N. A., & Maddern, G. J. (2007). Self-expanding metallic stents for relieving malignant colorectal obstruction: a systematic review. Ann Surg, 246(1), 24-30. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.sla.0000261124.72687.72

West, N. P., Anderin, C., Smith, K. J., Holm, T., & Quirke, P. (2010). Multicentre experience with extralevator abdominoperineal excision for low rectal cancer. Br J Surg, 97(4), 588-599. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.6916

West, N. P., Hohenberger, W., Weber, K., Perrakis, A., Finan, P. J., & Quirke, P. (2010). Complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation produces an oncologically superior specimen compared with standard surgery for carcinoma of the colon. J Clin Oncol, 28(2), 272-278. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.24.1448

Westwood, M., Joore, M., Grutters, J., Redekop, K., Armstrong, N., Lee, K., . . . Kleijnen, J. (2013). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound using SonoVue(R) (sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles) compared with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the characterisation of focal liver lesions and detection of liver metastases: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. Health Technol Assess, 17(16), 1-243. https://doi.org/10.3310/hta17160

WHO Definition of Palliative Care. (2010). [nettdokument]. Geneva: World Health Organization. Hentet 16.12.2009, fra http://www.who.int/cancer/palliative/definition/en/

Wibe, A., Rendedal, P. R., Svensson, E., Norstein, J., Eide, T. J., Myrvold, H. E., & Soreide, O. (2002). Prognostic significance of the circumferential resection margin following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Br J Surg, 89(3), 327-334. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0007-1323.2001.02024.x

Wicherts, D. A., de Haas, R. J., Salloum, C., Andreani, P., Pascal, G., Sotirov, D., . . . Azoulay, D. (2013). Repeat hepatectomy for recurrent colorectal metastases. Br J Surg, 100(6), 808-818. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.9088

Wiering, B., Krabbe, P. F., Jager, G. J., Oyen, W. J., & Ruers, T. J. (2005). The impact of fluor-18-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in the management of colorectal liver metastases. Cancer, 104(12), 2658-2670. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.21569

Wieszczy, P., Kaminski, M. F., Franczyk, R., Loberg, M., Kobiela, J., Rupinska, M., . . . Regula, J. (2020). Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality After Removal of Adenomas During Screening Colonoscopies. Gastroenterology, 158(4), 875-883.e875. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.09.011

Wieszczy, P., Regula, J., & Kaminski, M. F. (2017). Adenoma detection rate and risk of colorectal cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol, 31(4), 441-446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpg.2017.07.002

Wiig, J. N., Larsen, S. G., Dueland, S., & Giercksky, K. E. (2008). Preoperative irradiation and surgery for local recurrence of rectal and rectosigmoid cancer. Prognostic factors with regard to survival and further local recurrence. Colorectal Disease, 10(1), 48-57. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2007.01398.x

Wilkinson, K. J., Chua, W., Ng, W., & Roohullah, A. (2015). Management of asymptomatic primary tumours in stage IV colorectal cancer: Review of outcomes. World journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 7(12), 513-523. https://doi.org/10.4251/wjgo.v7.i12.513

Wille-Jørgensen, P., Syk, I., Smedh, K., Laurberg, S., Nielsen, D. T., Petersen, S. H., . . . Sorensen, H. T. (2018). Effect of More vs Less Frequent Follow-up Testing on Overall and Colorectal Cancer-Specific Mortality in Patients With Stage II or III Colorectal Cancer: The COLOFOL Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA, 319(20), 2095-2103. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.5623

Winther, K. V., Jess, T., Langholz, E., Munkholm, P., & Binder, V. (2004). Long-term risk of cancer in ulcerative colitis: a population-based cohort study from Copenhagen County. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2(12), 1088-1095. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1542-3565(04)00543-9

World Cancer Research Fund, & American Institute for Cancer Research. (2018). Diet, nutrition, physical activity and cancer: a global perspective: the third expert report. [nettdokument]. London: World Cancer Research Fund. Hentet 13. november 2019, fra https://www.wcrf.org/dietandcancer

Yan, T. D., Black, D., Savady, R., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2007). A systematic review on the efficacy of cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei. Ann Surg Oncol, 14(2), 484-492. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-006-9182-x

Yan, T. D., & Morris, D. L. (2008). Cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for isolated colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis: experimental therapy or standard of care? Ann Surg, 248(5), 829-835. https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e31818a15b5

Yano, H., & Moran, B. J. (2008). The incidence of lateral pelvic side-wall nodal involvement in low rectal cancer may be similar in Japan and the West. Br J Surg, 95(1), 33-49.

Yoshii, S., Nojima, M., Nosho, K., Omori, S., Kusumi, T., Okuda, H., . . . Hosokawa, M. (2014). Factors associated with risk for colorectal cancer recurrence after endoscopic resection of T1 tumors. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 12(2), 292-302.e293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2013.08.008

Yothers, G., O'Connell, M. J., Allegra, C. J., Kuebler, J. P., Colangelo, L. H., Petrelli, N. J., & Wolmark, N. (2011). Oxaliplatin as adjuvant therapy for colon cancer: updated results of NSABP C-07 trial, including survival and subset analyses. J Clin Oncol, 29(28), 3768-3774. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2011.36.4539

You, Y. N., Skibber, J. M., Hu, C. Y., Crane, C. H., Das, P., Kopetz, E. S., . . . Chang, G. J. (2016). Impact of multimodal therapy in locally recurrent rectal cancer. Br J Surg, 103(6), 753-762. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.10079

Yu, S., Shabihkhani, M., Yang, D., Thara, E., Senagore, A., Lenz, H. J., . . . Barzi, A. (2013). Timeliness of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III adenocarcinoma of the colon: a measure of quality of care. Clin Colorectal Cancer, 12(4), 275-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clcc.2013.08.002

Yu, S. K., Chand, M., Tait, D. M., & Brown, G. (2014). Magnetic resonance imaging defined mucinous rectal carcinoma is an independent imaging biomarker for poor prognosis and poor response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Eur J Cancer, 50(5), 920-927. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2013.12.007

Zhang, C. D., Wang, J. N., Sui, B. Q., Zeng, Y. J., Chen, J. Q., & Dai, D. Q. (2016). Prognostic and Predictive Model for Stage II Colon Cancer Patients With Nonemergent Surgery: Who Should Receive Adjuvant Chemotherapy? Medicine (Baltimore), 95(1), e2190. https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000002190

Zhao, S., Wang, S., Pan, P., Xia, T., Chang, X., Yang, X., . . . Bai, Y. (2019). Magnitude, Risk Factors, and Factors Associated With Adenoma Miss Rate of Tandem Colonoscopy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Gastroenterology, 156(6), 1661-1674.e1611. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.01.260

Zhou, C., Ren, Y., Li, J., Li, X., He, J., & Liu, P. (2014). Systematic review and meta-analysis of rectal washout on risk of local recurrence for cancer. J Surg Res, 189(1), 7-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2014.01.030

Zhuang, C. L., Ye, X. Z., Zhang, X. D., Chen, B. C., & Yu, Z. (2013). Enhanced recovery after surgery programs versus traditional care for colorectal surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Dis Colon Rectum, 56(5), 667-678. https://doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0b013e3182812842

Zimmermann, C., Swami, N., Krzyzanowska, M., Hannon, B., Leighl, N., Oza, A., . . . Lo, C. (2014). Early palliative care for patients with advanced cancer: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 383(9930), 1721-1730. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(13)62416-2

Zutshi, M., Delaney, C. P., Senagore, A. J., Mekhail, N., Lewis, B., Connor, J. T., & Fazio, V. W. (2005). Randomized controlled trial comparing the controlled rehabilitation with early ambulation and diet pathway versus the controlled rehabilitation with early ambulation and diet with preemptive epidural anesthesia/analgesia after laparotomy and intestinal resection. Am J Surg, 189(3), 268-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2004.11.012

Zaanan, A., Cuilliere-Dartigues, P., Guilloux, A., Parc, Y., Louvet, C., de Gramont, A., . . . Praz, F. (2010). Impact of p53 expression and microsatellite instability on stage III colon cancer disease-free survival in patients treated by 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin with or without oxaliplatin. Ann Oncol, 21(4), 772-780. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdp383

Zaanan, A., Flejou, J. F., Emile, J. F., Des, G. G., Cuilliere-Dartigues, P., Malka, D., . . . Taieb, J. (2011). Defective mismatch repair status as a prognostic biomarker of disease-free survival in stage III colon cancer patients treated with adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 17(23), 7470-7478. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-11-1048

Aasebø, K., Dragomir, A., Sundström, M., Mezheyeuski, A., Edqvist, P. H., Eide, G. E., . . . Sorbye, H. (2019). Consequences of a high incidence of microsatellite instability and BRAF-mutated tumors: A population-based cohort of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Cancer Med, 8(7), 3623-3635. https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2205

Sist faglig oppdatert: 20. mai 2022