Du benytter en nettleser vi ikke støtter. Se informasjon om nettlesere

Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022

The new edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) will be published in June 2023. There will be several opportunities for the public to participate during the update project.


The NNR2022 project period will be extended with 6 months

The scope of the NNR2022 project has been expanded since the process began in January 2019 and the development of the scientific background material has been more extensive than originally predicted. The new edition of NNR is now planned to be published in June 2023.

For an updated tentative time schedule for the NNR2022 project, please go to the tab "time schedule".

Public consultations

The NNR2022 project will now carry out public consultations on the scientific background material that will inform the dietary reference values (DRVs) and food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) in the final NNR2022 report. We encourage stakeholders, scientists, and other interested parties to share their insight and feedback on the chapter drafts on the scientific assessment on nutrients and food groups and health outcomes.

The hearing period for each chapter draft will be eight weeks. To subscribe for updates, please fill in your email address at the bottom of the public consultation website. You will then receive a news alert when a new chapter is available. You will find a link to the public consultation website below.

About the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR)

The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) constitutes the scientific basis for national nutrient recommendations and food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The international collaboration between the five Nordic countries has resulted in the previous five editions of the NNR.

The most recent edition of the NNR (NNR2012) was launched in 2012/13 and published in 2014. Since then, a large number of scientific studies have emerged, underscoring the need for updating the NNR.

The new edition (NNR2022) is planned to be published in June 2023. In addition to include an update on NNR for energy, macro- and micronutrients, NNR2022 will develop evidence-based platforms for the national FBDG as well as the integration of overweight and obesity, and sustainability and environmental issues into FBDG.

Organization and roles

NNR2022 Committee

The NNR2022 Committee is the working group responsible for organizing and implementing the NNR2022 project as well as communicate and publish the NNR2022 report. The Committee consists of the project leader, ten nationally appointed committee members, and a scientific project secretary. The Committee members are appointed by the national food and health authorities of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Each country appoints two committee members. In addition, representatives appointed by the food and health authorities in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the autonomous areas of the Faroe Islands contribute to the NNR2022 Committee as observers.

Project leader:

  • Rune Blomhoff, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Committee members:

  • Jacob Juel Christensen, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • Helle Margrete Meltzer, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  • Hanna Eneroth, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden
  • Eva Warensjö Lemming, Swedish National Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden
  • Ellen Trolle, Technical University Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
  • Rikke Andersen, Technical University Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
  • Inga Þórsdóttir, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland
  • Þórhallur Ingi Þórhallsson, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland
  • Ursula Schwab, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
  • Maijaliisa Erkkola, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland


  • Tagli Pitsi, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia
  • Lāsma Piķele, The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Latvia, Rīga, Latvia
  • Inese Siksna, Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment, Rīga, Latvia (alternate member)
  • Almantas Kranauskas, Ministry of Health, Vilnius, Lithuania
  • Bjørg Mikkelsen, Food Department at Faroese Food and Veterinary Authority, Faroe Islands

Project secretary:

  • Anne Høyer, The Norwegian Directorate of Health, Oslo, Norway

The NNR2022 Committee is responsible for the scientific progress of the work, including deciding on the principles and methodology for updating chapters (including methodology for performing systematic literature reviews), selecting chapter topics and type of approach used to update each chapter, define research questions for in-depth review, set dietary reference values and FBDGs and the final edit and publication of the NNR2022 report. For an overview of the specific tasks of the committee, see the Organization chart.

The NNR2022 Committee is responsible for appointing Scientific Advisory Board members, Chapter experts and Peer reviewers, and for establishing a NNR-Systematic Review Centre (NNR-SR Centre). All board members and scientific experts must sign conflict of interest forms to be reviewed and approved by the NNR2022 Committee. The NNR2022 Committee will report to the Steering Committee regularly.

Steering Committee

The Steering Committee is responsible for the overall management of the project. The committee consist of five representatives from the food and health authorities in the Nordic countries. The committee is chaired by the representative from Norway. The NNR2022 Committee will consult the Steering Committee on all administrative and budget matters throughout the project period.

Committee members:

  • Henriette Øien, The Norwegian Directorate of Health, Oslo, Norway
  • Anne Pøhl Enevoldsen, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Glostrup, Denmark
  • Satu Männistö, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
  • Hólmfríður Þorgeirsdóttir, Directorate of Health, Reykjavík, Iceland
  • Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden

Scientific Advisory Group

The Scientific Advisory Group consists of internationally recognized scientists with experience in developing dietary reference values and FBDG for national authorities or health organizations. The Scientific Advisory Group will advise on the principles and methodologies for updating NNR, including the methodology used for performing systematic literature reviews as part of the NNR2022 project. They will also give advice on general scientific issues related to the NNR2022 project.

Members of the Scientific Advisory Group:

  • Amanda MacFarlane, Nutrition Research Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
  • Joseph Lau, Center for Evidence Synthesis in Health, Brown University School of Public Health
  • Susan Fairweather‐Tait, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UQ, UK.
  • Joao Breda, PhD MPH MBA │Head WHO European Office for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases & a.i. Programme Manager Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity │Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-course, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Dominique Turck, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Lille University Jeanne de Flandre Children's Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Lille, France | Univ. Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, U1286 - INFINITE - Institute for Translational Research in Inflammation, Lille, France 
  • Giota Mitrou, World Cancer Research Fund International, London, UK.
  • Wulf Becker, Uppsala University, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

NNR-Systematic Review Centre (NNR-SR Centre)

The NNR2022 project will establish a virtual NNR-SR Centre, responsible for conducting systematic reviews on selected topics. The NNR-SR Centre will consist of a group of multidisciplinary scientists, of which a minimum of two will be experienced scientists and one a statistician. The other members may be PhD students or postdocs. The NNR-SR Centre will be facilitated by one or more librarians. The accepted member so far are:

  • Agneta Åkesson, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden  (head)
  • Christel Lamberg-Allardt, University of Helsinki, Finland.
  • Erik Arnesen, Dept. of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Norway
  • Linnea Bärebring, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Bright Nwaru, University of Tampere/University of Gothenburg, Finland/Sweden
  • Jutta Dierkes, University of Bergen, Norway
  • Birna Thorisdottir, The School of Social Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Cancer Society, Iceland
  • Alfons Ramel, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
  • Fredrik Söderlund, Karolinska Institute, Sweden

The SR-Centre might be strengthened further with some specific expertise.

Experts for updating chapters

The NNR project will engage several scientific experts across the Nordic countries for updating the various chapters. For each chapter, a minimum of two experts will be involved. The experts will be appointed by the NNR2022 Committee based on a public call and their personal skills and competence related to the individual chapters. The public call was open until all chapter authors and referees had been appointed.

Peer reviewers for chapters and systematic reviews

Several scientific experts will be engaged as peer reviewers for chapters and systematic reviews. For each chapter and systematic review, at least two experts will be appointed. The experts will be appointed by the NNR2022 Committee based on a public call and their personal skills and competence related to the individual chapters or systematic reviews.

An overview of the project organization and roles can be found in the Organization chart. 

NNR 2022 Organization chart
NNR 2022: Organization chart
Download pdf version of organization chart

Updating chapters of NNR

The new edition of NNR (NNR2022) will include an update of all 42 chapters in NNR2012. In addition, new chapters may be developed for topics of specific importance for public health in the Nordic or Baltic countries. In NNR2022, there will be an increased focus on foods and dietary patterns as well as the integration of overweight and obesity, and sustainability and environmental issues.

An in-depth review of the principles and methodology for updating NNR has been published as two separate chapters, one focusing on the overall principles and methodology for updating NNR and one focusing on the methodology for conducting systematic reviews.

Chapter authors NNR2022

We encourage stakeholder and all interested parties to not contact the chapter authors directly. All comments or questions should be sent through the NNR2022 official webpage – please go to "Get Involved" in the lane on the left side of the webpage. to submit your comment. In order to comply with full transparency, all comments will be answered by the NNR2022 Committee and published at the official webpage.

Download pdf version of overview of chapter authors in NNR2022

Instructions for chapter authors (PDF)

Quality assessment of systematic reviews

A modified AMSTAR-2 form has been developed for NNR. The modified form and the reasoning for the modifications can be found below. 

Modified AMSTAR2 NNR_explanation (PDF)

AMSTAR2-NNR_rev19.09.22 (PDF)

Integrating sustainability aspects

The Nordic Council of Ministers has requested that sustainability aspects must be implemented in NNR2022. The updated Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) will therefore integrate environmental sustainability aspects into the food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs), if relevant. The scientific report that is expected to be published in June 2023, will be the most authoritative framework for integration of sustainability into the national FBDGs in the Nordic and Baltic countries, and their national food and health policies and programs.

In the NNR project, health effects will first be assessed. Then, the environmental dimension of sustainability will be integrated. We will also consider social and economic dimensions of sustainability. In the final NNR report it will be clearly stated whether guidelines or recommendations are based on health or sustainability.

A large number of sustainability scientists have been recruited to develop sustainability background papers. All authors will be clearly acknowledged when papers are announced for public consultation. In addition, the reference group will also be acknowledged in the published papers. The majority of the experts are from the Nordic and Baltic countries and they possess huge competence on the local context. But sustainability can not only be considered in a local context. A majority of the food consumed is imported, and our food consumption have therefore a large impact on sustainability in many vulnerable regions in the world. Therefore, the environmental dimension must also be view in a global context.  That is why we have collaborated with the independent institute Chatham House. Chatham House is internationally renowned for its high-quality reports and guidance to national authorities and international organization such as UN, the G20 countries and the International Monetary Fund.

NNR is science advice to national authorities. After delivery of the NNR report, the national authorities in the Nordic and Baltic countries needs to implement the science advice into their national policies.  It is a tradition that nutrient recommendations are transferred into national recommendations without adjustment. For the food-based dietary guidelines, there is typically more flexibility between the countries in the exact formulation of statements. While the science base is the same, also the local context needs to be considered for food-based dietary guidelines. When considering sustainability, the countries might also want to priorities differently based on their local context.

While dietary recommendations may have implications for food security and self-sufficiency, it is outside the scope of the NNR project to give advice on such issues.  NNR touch upon these issues when relevant, but it is the responsibility of the national authorities in the eight Nordic and Baltic countries to make decision on these matters.

The NNR2022 project base its sustainability assessment on several major reports such as i) The sixth assessment report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2022), ii) The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) (2019), iii) The Evidence Review Report from the Science Advice for Policy by European Academies (SAPEA) (2020), and iv) several declarations from the Nordic Council og Ministers. In addition, five background papers are developed within the NNR project together covering aspects of all dimensions of sustainability both in a global and local perspective. All five papers will be announced for public consultation. 

Time schedule

The NNR2022 project began January 2019 and will continue until June 2023 with the release of the final NNR2022 report.

A tentative timeline of the project is given in the Time schedule chart. Tentative time schedule is depending on intermediate milestone, changes might occur. Time schedule updated January 2023.

Chart showing time schedule
NNR 2022: Time schedule chart

Download pdf version of time schedule chart

Get involved! 

There will be several opportunities for the public to participate during the NNR2022 update project. Ways to participate include reviewing regularly updated information on our website, including minutes from past meetings in the NNR2022 Committee and Steering Committee, nominating topics for in-depth review by independent experts, engage in various public hearings, provide public comments, etc.

Provide public comments

Throughout the NNR2022 update project, written comments can be submitted to the NNR2022 Committee on topics relevant to its work. All submitted comments will be publicly available. 

Public comments and nomination of topics

To comply with transparency, the results of the nomination process and all public comments are reported here. The Committee is now working on answers to all comments. All answers will be publicly available at this website.

Nomination of topics


As preparatory work for the NNR2022, in-depth reviews (i.e. systematic reviews) will be conducted on selected topics of particular importance for public health in the Nordic or Baltic countries in which new and relevant scientific data has emerged since NNR2012.

To ensure openness and transparency in the process, the public was invited to nominate topics for which systematic reviews are warranted. The final decision on which topics to review was made by the NNR2022 Committee after consulting with the Scientific Advisory Group. The result of the nomination process will be in the form of a prioritized list of topics.

The public call was open until December 31st 2020.

Received nominations was be evaluated according to the following criteria:

  • Relevance: The topic is within the scope of NNR2022
  • Importance: The topic has new, relevant data in an area of substantial public health concern, uncertainty, and/or knowledge gap
  • Potential national impact: There is a probability that guidance on the topic would inform national food and health policies and programs
  • Avoiding duplication: The topic is not currently addressed through other evidence-based national or international initiatives

Received nominations was be screened for completeness to ensure all requirements are met (see below). To avoid bias in the screening and assessment process, all nominations was be handled anonymously.

NNR 2022 process for updating chapters
NNR 2022: Process for prioritization of SR topics in NNR2022
SAG: Scientific Advisory Group
qSR: qualified systematic review
ScR: Scoping review
NNR SR Centre: NNR Systematic Review Centre
DRVs: Dietary Reference Values
FBDGs: Food-Based Dietary Guidelines
PI/ECOTSS: population, intervention/intake/exposure, comparator, outcome, timing, setting, study design
Download pdf version of Process for prioritization of SR topics in NNR2022

Submission of nominations

The nomination must include a cover letter, reference list and a simple PI/ECOTSS statement covering the elements population, intervention/exposure, outcome and timing. The specific requirements for each item are listed below. 

Cover letter (background)

The cover letter should describe the rationale and description of why a systematic review is needed. The topic should be discussed in light of the evaluation criteria listed above. The cover letter should be no more than 4000 characters.

Reference list

A list of new, relevant literature since NNR2012 supporting the need for a systematic review of the suggested topic should be provided. The literature list should be restricted to a maximum of 10 references to scientific studies.

PI/ECOTSS statement

The final topics for systematic reviews will be formulated as PI/ECOTSS statements. Thus, the nominator is encouraged to define the research question by means of a simplified PI/ECOTSS statement. PI/ECOTSS statement consist of the following elements:

  • Population(s) (e.g. age, gender, ethnicity, health status, individuals with or without specific diseases or risk factors, or it can be experimental animal models or in vitro samples)
  • Intervention/Exposure(s) (e.g. intake of a specific nutrient, food, food group or food component, inclusion or exclusion of supplements or other sources). This is the independent variable. It is important to describe the intervention/exposure in detail, rather than using general broad terms.
  • Comparator(s) (e.g. studies comparing intervention to placebo, experimental diet to usual diet, lower versus upper quartile)
  • Outcome(s) (e.g. specific health outcome, qualified biomarker, risk factor, specific or total mortality). It is important to limit the outcomes to those that may inform dietary reference values or FBDGs.
  • Timing (e.g. the time it takes for the intervention/exposure to achieve the outcome)
  • Setting (e.g. intervention in different types of environments, specific conditions such as exposure to prolonged heath, high or low physical activity level, high or low level of energy expenditure)
  • Study design(s) (e.g. randomized controlled trial, other clinical trial, prospective cohort studies, case-control studies, mechanistic studies)

In the nomination, the elements population, intervention/exposure, outcome and timing should be included. The PI/ECOTSS will be further refined by the NNR 2022 Committee after consulting the Scientific Advisory Group.

Call for NNR-SR Centre

The NNR-SR Centre is now established and the call is closed.

Call for experts

The NNR2022 update project will engage several scientific experts across the Nordic countries. Experts will be involved in different parts of the NNR project from conducting and reviewing systematic literature reviews to writing and reviewing chapters. A broad range of experts will be engaged, from methodology experts (e.g. statisticians, librarians) to researchers with experience with nutrients- and food-based dietary guidelines. Both experienced and young researchers are encouraged to apply. Experts performing systematic reviews will be organized in virtual NNR-SR Centre.

To become an NNR expert, you had to submit an application form including contact information, area of expertise and preferred way(s) of contributing (i.e. as a systematic review expert, chapter expert and/or peer-reviewer of systematic reviews or NNR chapters). You had to also provide information on which topics (i.e. nutrient, food, food compound) suits your competence. As an NNR expert you might be engaged in the update of several chapters. The application must be supported by an academic CV.

Received applications was reviewed by the NNR2022 Committee and evaluated based on personal skills and competence related to the different tasks. Suitable candidates was contacted.

The public call was open until all chapter authors and referees have been appointed. The call is now closed.

De novo Systematic Reviews

The NNR2022 Committee has prioritized 9 PI/ECOTSS for de novo systematic reviews (SRs). The prioritisation of PI/ECOTSS was decided in a modified Delphi process. The protocols will be published in PROSPERO and available for the public. All SRs will be conducted by the NNR-SR Centre.

The nine topics prioritised for SR are:

  1. Plant protein intake in children and body growth
  2. Pulses/legumes intake and cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes
  3. Plant protein intake in adults and atherosclerotic/cardiovascular and disease type 2 diabetes
  4. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B12 status in susceptible groups
  5. Fat quality and mental health
  6. Intake of white meat (no consumption vs high consumption and white meat replaced with red meat) and all-cause mortality, type 2 diabetes and risk factors
  7. Intake of n-3 LPUFAs from supplements during pregnancy and asthma and allergies in the offspring 
  8. Intake of nuts and CVD and type 2 diabetes in adults
  9. Dietary fibre intake (high vs low) in children and bowel function

The results of this process is described in a scientific article and submitted to Food & Nutrition Research. The article is now accepted by the journal and will be published shortly. Høyer A, Christensen JJ, Arnesen EK, Andersen R, Eneroth H, Erkkola M, et.al. The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 – Prioritization of topics for de novo systematic reviews. Food Nutr Res. 2021.

Scientific articles in Food & Nutrition Research

Methodology papers:

De novo systematic reviews:

Background papers:

Meeting minutes

NNR2022 Committee meetings 

Steering Group meetings

Previous webinars

May 25th 2022

The NNR2022 Committee arranged a status webinar on May 25th 2022. The webinar was recorded and is available here.

May 25th 2021

The NNR2022 Committee arranged a webinar on Environment-friendly food systems on May 25th 2021. Please find all presentations and recordings below.

Presentations from speakers (PDF)

Click here to see the program

September 24th 2020

The NNR2022 Comittee arranged a webinar on diet and sustainability on September 24th to start the work on integrating sustainability aspects into the DRVs and FBDGs. The webinar was recorded, and are available together with the presentations below.​​​
See the program (pdf).


Presentations from speakers(PDF)​

Presentations from stakeholders:​​​​​​ (PDF)

Contact information

The public is invited to submit written comments to the committee throughout the project period. All submitted comments will be publicly available.

To submit a comment, please fill in the current form:


If you would like to receive updates on the latest news directly to you inbox, please sign up for our NNR2022 newsletter.

Først publisert: 03.07.2019 Last revised date: 24.03.2023 See previous versions